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Unlocking: Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Both Dark Energy (DE) and Dark Matter (DM) are an unsolved mystery. Because they are undiscoverable, they are called ‘Dark’. Scientists know Dark Energy and Dark Matter exist because without them, the universe cannot sustain itself or function in its current form.

With powerful telescopes, scientists have been watching the universe. They have discovered a lot. They have a good idea of the number of galaxies, and the number of stars and planetary systems within each galaxy. Watching the expansion of the universe and movement of these galaxies, they have estimated the energy composition of the universe to be:  

  • Dark energy (DE) – 79%
  • Dark matter (DM) – 26%
  • Visible Matter – 5%

The visible galaxies and the stars and planets within them make up 5% of the energy. The balance 95% energy is unknown, and scientists believe it is made up of DE and DM. Why? They believe that DE and DM are necessary for the universe to function. Here is a current understanding of dark energy and dark matter.

Dark Energy: Cosmologists know there is a gravitational pull between the galaxies, which means that the galaxies are pulled closer to each other. So, the space between the galaxies should contract as the galaxies come closer to each other. Observation has shown that this is not happening. Instead, what is seen is that space is expanding, and the galaxies are moving apart. The only way this can happen is if there is some force which is pushing all the galaxies apart. We can deduce that this force is greater than the gravitational pull and is the reason for the expansion of space. This expansionary force requires energy, lots of energy. This energy is the mysterious Dark Energy, which is responsible for the expansion of the universe. Scientists estimate Dark Energy makes up 79% of the total energy requirement for this universe. This Dark Energy is unknown. They have no clue about its composition. It is not like visible energy. It is not gamma rays, x-rays or any other electromagnetic waves, which make up the spectrum of visible energy. Researchers are looking for DE, but it continues to be unknown.

Dark Matter: If you follow science, you will know that each galaxy rotates around its center. The center is usually a massive black hole. All the stars and planets within a galaxy rotate around its black hole. This also applies to our Milky Way. Earth, part of the solar system, rotates around the sun. Our solar system including the sun, rotates around the center of the Milky Way. Fun fact – it takes 228 million years for our solar system to make one complete round of the Milky way. Just imagine – they were dinosaurs on Earth when our solar system was last at its current location.

When scientists look at the rotation of these galaxies, they find something strange which is inexplicable. The orbital speeds of galaxies do not follow the physical laws found in other orbital systems such as stars, planets, and moons. Stars and Planetary systems revolve around their galaxy’s center at equal or increasing speeds over a large range of distances. In contrast, the orbital speed of planets within their planetary systems declines with distance.

For example, in our solar system – the orbital speed of Pluto is much lower compared to other planets in the system. This decrease in orbital speed as distance increases is proven by calculations. This logic does not apply to stars and planetary systems in galaxies. As the graph above shows, as the distance from the center of the galaxy increases, the orbital speed of observed objects in the galaxy is much higher than what is predicted by scientific calculations.

This increased orbital speed of objects in a galaxy has many implications. The high rotational speed of objects at the outer edge would mean that they should not and cannot rotate around the galaxy but should escape or fly out. They are rotating so fast that they should escape their orbits.  But this is not what is observed. Why this contradiction in physical laws? No one has yet been able to figure this out. It is a mystery. Scientists have postulated that there is additional matter around these stars. The increased matter in the galaxy means that there is an increased gravitational pull to the center. This allows the stars of the outer edge to maintain their rotation in their mother galaxy. Scientists do not know what this additional matter is and so it’s called Dark Matter. Scientists estimate that DM makes up 26% of the total available energy in the universe.

There is an increasing effort scientific circles to find Dark Matter. Scientists think dark matter must be made up of particles. Initially, they thought it was like visible matter, made up of protons, neutrons and electrons and an array of sub-atomic particles. Atomic particles interact with light and other electromagnetic waves. After a series of experiments, scientists are finding that dark matter does not interact with light and other electromagnetic waves. There is no absorption or reflection of light. So, the conclusion is that Dark Matter is not the same as visible matter. It is something different, it is something unknown. To continue the search, a wide range of unique experiments are being conducted in various parts of the world to discover the particles which make up dark matter. In one high profile experiment, a tunnel has been dug one mile underground to make sure no earthly particles can pass through. In this tunnel they are hoping a dark matter particle will show up so that they can then study its properties.

Will they be successful? I believe it to be unlikely. They are not going to find dark energy and dark matter in space out there. They have already tried and failed to find DM and DE within the visible matter. The time is come to look elsewhere.

Going back to Einstein’s theory of relativity, we get a clue. In this theory, Einstein made a connection between space and time. He stated that space and time are two sides of the same coin and he called this the spacetime. He also stated that this spacetime is like a fabric made up of time and the entire universe rests on this spacetime fabric.

Since we have seen that scientists are unable to find dark matter and dark energy in space, I believe that to understand them, we need to properly understand time based spacetime fabric. If they shift their focus and attention to the spacetime fabric, they will find answers to dark energy and dark matter.

In this article we are going to focus on spacetime and show how a better understanding of spacetime can lead to unlocking the mystery of dark energy and dark matter. Before we move forward, it is important to fully understand the following key issues.

  • Spacetime vs Space
  • Framework of the Time Fabric
  • Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

Spacetime and Space

As mentioned earlier Einstein coined the term spacetime. This term causes some confusion. There is space and there is spacetime. What is the difference? Space is what we see out when we look out and everything in space is measured in distances. The tree is 200 feet away; the plane is flying at 30,000 feet. Space is visible and operates in the 3 dimensions.

Spacetime looks at the same ‘thing’ in terms of time. This term is confusing because there is no space in spacetime there is only time. In spacetime the measurement is in units of time alone, no distances are measured. For example, light takes 8 minutes to reach us from the sun, the distant star is 500 million light years away. Everything in spacetime is measured in time only. There is NO distances etc., only time. The following images will help in understanding the spacetime Fabric, but they wrongly convey the impression that the spacetime Fabric operates in space. This is wrong because spacetime operates in a different plane. As Einstein stated, spacetime operates in the 4th dimension. Where is the 4th dimension? One thing is clear that the 4th dimension cannot function in the 3 dimensions, otherwise we would have to say that space has 4 dimensions.

Henceforth in this article we will refer to spacetime as Time Fabric to avoid the confusion created by the term spacetime. This is more accurate and conveys the meaning that only time is the variable in spacetime.

Spacetime Fabric = Time Fabric

Nobody knows where the 4th dimension is. We could speculate, but the location of the 4th dimension is not the focus of this article. We will show later that energy interacts with the Time Fabric to create space. Understanding the Time Fabric is the key to unlocking the mystery of dark energy and dark matter.

Framework of the Time Fabric

If you look at space, it is impossible to find a starting point or even the edge of space. Space is everywhere. But for Time Fabric there must be a start and end point. Why? Because Time Fabric is made up of time. Time must have a beginning and an end.

Where is the starting point for Time Fabric?  t = 0 must be the starting point for the Time Fabric. We know the big bang happened about 13.7 billion years ago. We also know time started with the big bang. Before the big bang there was no time. Does that mean that the starting point of Time Fabric occurs at the advent of the big bang? The big bang is no longer the start point or the t = 0 location for the fabric. Science really confuses the issue by saying the Time Fabric starts with the big bang. Yes, time started 13.7 billion years back, but at this current moment, at this now moment, the t = 0 for the Time Fabric is not the big bang.  The big bang is the outer edge or ending point of the Time Fabric.

If not the big bang, where is the start point (t =0) for the Time Fabric? To understand the t = 0 point for the Time Fabric, let us visualize the space in terms of time.

Let us study the external objects ‘out there’ in terms of time. If we can see a faraway star, say 5 million light years away, it takes light from that star 5 million years to reach us. Now, we see the sun, the light from the sun takes 8 min to reach us. We look at the moon; its light will take 3 seconds to reach us. We look at the plane flying in the sky, at 30,000 feet; its light takes about 300 milliseconds to reach us. As the distance of the object being viewed is reduced, the time taken for light to reach us is much smaller. I now look at the tree outside the window; the time taken for light to reach me is 10 microseconds (10-6). For instance, I am looking at the computer screen 1 ft away typing this article, then light will take about 1 nanosecond (10-9). As the distance reduces the time taken for light also reduces. If you extrapolate this backward, the only logical place for time to be equal to 0 is the observer, who is watching all these objects. This means that the observer within you is the starting point of the Time Fabric. This is the t = 0 of the Time Fabric. This means that the Time Fabric starts with the observer within you.

Where is the end point for Time Fabric? If the start point for the Time Fabric is the observer within you, where is the end point? This is simple, since the universe is 13.7 billion years old, the end point of the Time Fabric is 13.7 billion years away from you. In the 4th dimension, which is made up of time, the Time Fabric extends from the observer within you to the big bang moment.

Is the end point static? Obviously, not. As time moves forward, the Time Fabric will keep expanding. The size of the Time Fabric is directly proportional to the time elapsed. Right now, if the universe is 13.7 billion years old, the size of the Time Fabric is 13.7 billion years. After 1 year, the size of the Time Fabric will be 13.7 billion years + 1 year. In other words, the outer edge of the Time Fabric expands as time goes by.

Construction of Time Fabric: Logically you would expect the Time Fabric to be continuous. The images shown earlier, shows the fabric is not continuous but it constitutes a grid with discrete nodal points. Why? This is because time is not continuous. The time does feel continuous, but it is not continuous. Based on the Plank Constant, it is proven that time is made of discrete elements. The shortest separation between two discrete elements is 10-44 seconds. These discrete time elements make up the Time Fabric. The start of the Time Fabric is the t = 0, which is the observer within you. The first node will be at 10-44 sec away from the observer. The second node will be at 2 x 10-44 sec away, the third node will be 3 x 10-44 away. With these small increments of time nodes, the entire Time Fabric is built up. 10-44 is a very small value. The human mind cannot even comprehend this. Can you imagine the number of time nodes in the fabric to reach the sun which is 8 min away or to a faraway star which is 5 million light-years away?

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

To connect space and the Time Fabric properly, it is important to understand the Einstein’s theory of relativity. In 1905, he postulated the theory of special relativity and in 1915, he introduced the theory of general relativity. Let us discuss each one of them to make the connection between space and Time Fabric.

Theory of Special Relativity: 

Without going into details, one of the major conclusions of this theory is that time and motion are interconnected. Put simply, wherever there is motion time slows down. Yes, time does slow down with motion. Your clock will slow down. The faster you go, the slower time becomes. You may not notice it, because the change is exceedingly small, but time does slow down. At the speed of light (186,000 miles per sec) time does not move and it becomes standstill. This connection between motion and time is a proven fact.

If you think about it, motion operates in space (in the 3 dimensions) and time with the Time Fabric (in the 4th dimension). So, space and the Time Fabric are connected. Science believes that motion is the cause and the effect of that motion is the change in the Time Fabric. What is the change in the Time Fabric? Slowing down of time means that the Time Fabric is more compressed. The time nodes in the fabric are closer, they are more compressed. The higher the speed the closer the time nodes in the fabric. At the speed of light there is no time, there is no Time Fabric.

Science believes motion happens first, and this slows down time. Motion happens in the 3 dimensions and the time change happens in the Time Fabric (the 4th dimension). Is this the correct way to interpret the theory of special relativity? Another way to look at this interconnection is the reverse – time slows down first and this causes motion. Compress the Time Fabric and motion happens in space. This is opposite to the conventional thinking. Which is correct? We are so used to conventional thinking that it is be difficult to accept that compression of the Time Fabric causes motion.

We will see later that to decode dark energy and dark matter; it is important to study the Time Fabric. We will see that dark energy and dark matter operate within the Time Fabric. The cause of dark energy and dark matter is in the Time Fabric and the effect of is seen in space. Everything happens first in the Time Fabric and not in space. Even the motion of planets and stars is only due to the compression and decompression of time in the Time Fabric. Understanding this will help find the mystery behind dark energy and dark matter.

Theory of General Relativity (GR): 

Einstein introduced the theory of General Relativity in 1915. The major outcome of this theory is that in the presence of matter, time slows down. The slowing down of time is represented by the Time Fabric bending or curving around an object. The heavier the mass, the greater the curvature. Not only planets and stars, but matter with any mass will slow down time and curve the Time Fabric. For objects with a very small mass,  the curve will not be noticeable.

The above image, placing a planet (or any other object) on the Time Fabric is a good way to understand the curving of the Time Fabric. However, is this image accurate. No, it’s not. Why? Planet is matter and functions in the 3 dimensions of space. The Time Fabric is in the 4th dimension. There is no place for matter in the 4th dimension. Matter cannot exist in the 4th dimension. So, what is the alternative? We know energy and matter are connected by the famous equation E = mc2. So, it is the energy profile of objects which is available in the Time Fabric and not matter. So, in an image like the one above, where they show an object dipping down into the curve, it must be understood it is the energy profile of the object and not the physical object itself. This applies to every small and every large object in the universe.

Around the curvature, there are horizonal and vertical timelines. It is important to understand these timelines:

Vertical Timelines: The vertical timelines in the curvature are the source for the rotational or orbital motion. How can we say this? In the earlier section we showed that Time Fabric and motion are connected. The speed of rotation would depend how close or apart the vertical timelines are in the Time Fabric. The more compressed the vertical timelines, the higher the orbital speed. Vertical timelines are the cause for planetary orbital motion.

If you study the curvature around any massive object, the vertical timelines would be further apart at the top and more compressed at the bottom of the curvature. What does this mean? This means that wherever the vertical timelines are more compressed, the orbital speed of objects would be higher. Therefore, the orbital speed of objects near the bottom of the curvature would be higher than the orbital speed of objects at the top of the curvature.

This is what physicists predict with their calculations. In our solar system Mercury (closest to the sun) rotates faster than Earth and Earth rotate faster than all other planets in the solar system. Pluto, which is furthest away, is the slowest. We see that the compression of the vertical timelines complies with observed facts and calculations regarding the solar system.

Horizontal Timelines: The curvature of the Time Fabric is mainly due to the horizontal timelines. These horizontal timelines are the source for gravitational pull. The horizontal timelines in the images above do not faithfully represent the exact format. These horizontal timelines should follow a squared function graph. The top horizontal timelines should be more spaced out and as we move down the curvature, the timelines should be more compressed. This curvature should follow the t2 function. Why? Gravity is a function of t2. As time increases the speed of objects increases in a squared manner. The horizontal timelines in the curvature should reflect this.

Let us imagine an object rolls down this Time Fabric. From the earlier discussion we have seen that the Time Fabric is the cause for the motion of objects. At the top, the separation of the horizontal timelines will determine initial speed of the object. As it moves further down the slope of the curvature, the timelines are more compressed following the t2 function. This means the object will gather speed following the rules of gravity. With the curvature, the Time Fabric is providing the framework for the gravitational pull in space.

Before we continue, let us once again review some key aspects of the Time Fabric:

  1. Time Fabric is made up of time and functions in the 4th dimension.
  2. The starting point or t = 0 of the Time Fabric is the observer within you. The end point is the big bang.
  3. As time flows, the Time Fabric will keep expanding.
  4. The compression and expansion of the Time Fabric is the source for motion and gravity/acceleration.

With this understanding, let us see if we decode the mystery behind Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Understanding Dark Energy

The Time Fabric (the 4th dimension) creates the space which you see all around. How? To create space from the Time Fabric, there must be an energy source. Unfortunately, little is known about energy. How is it created, where is it created? These are unanswered questions. We know energy is used to make visible matter. We don’t know the source of this energy. It will not be incorrect to guess that somewhere there is an exceptionally large reservoir of energy. In fact, it could be an infinite source of energy. It would seem this energy plays different roles. Visible matter is created by this energy source. Let us see what happens when a part of this energy interacts with the Time Fabric. This energy stretches out time, so that every second in time is equal to 186,000 miles (speed of light). Just like a rubber band can be stretched outwards, in the same way, Time Fabric is being stretched outwards by this energy. With this stretching of the Time Fabric, space is created. One second of the Time Fabric becomes 186,000 miles of space. This is the space we see. Therefore, we see that space is created when energy stretches out the Time Fabric. From the big bang to today, there are13.7 billion years of the Time Fabric. The entire Time Fabric is stretched out by dark energy to create the space for the visible universe out there. A great deal of energy is required to stretch out the entire Time Fabric. This energy requirement for stretching the Time Fabric is nothing but dark energy. Scientist have estimated that dark energy is about 79% of the total energy requirement for this universe.

This energy which can stretch the Time Fabric is Dark Energy. It is not your ordinary energy, which is part of the visible universe. Dark energy is not part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic energy is good for visible matter, but it cannot stretch the Time Fabric to create space. To discover dark energy, more investigation must be done to understand the Time Fabric.

1. Does the compression of the Time Fabric change the size of space we see outside?  No. There may be no compression, little compression, moderate compression, or extreme Time Fabric compression. In all these conditions, the dark energy will continue to expand one second of the Time Fabric to make 186,000 miles in space. The size of space will always be 186,000 miles per second irrespective of the level of Time Fabric compression. Compression or no compression, the dark energy will always stretch one second of the Time Fabric to 186,000 miles. We know light travels at 186,000 per second. Light travels at this speed because one second of the Time Fabric is stretched to 186,000 miles. So, speed of light will always remain constant, irrespective how slow, or fast time moves. This is the major finding of the Einstein theory of special relativity.

2. We have seen earlier that as time flows, the Time Fabric will keep expanding. This means that the dark energy will stretch the Time Fabric to create an ever-expanding space out there. As long as time flows, space will continue to expand. More and more of the dark energy is being used to continue the expansion of space.

Understanding Dark Matter

We have seen earlier that scientists believe the existence of dark matter because the orbital speed of stars/planets in the galaxy is much higher than what is predicted. Because of this high speed, scientists believe there is dark matter around these stars/planets, which is holding these planetary objects in the orbit. Without this dark matter, the planets/stars would escape the orbit of the galaxy.

So, what is this dark matter? Let us go back to the Time Fabric. We have seen that when the energy profile of an object is placed on the Time Fabric, it curves the Time Fabric. As, we discussed earlier, the vertical timelines in the Time Fabric provides the orbital speed to the objects and the horizontal timelines provides the gravitational pull of the object to the bottom of the time curvature. Physics has a standard way of calculating the orbital speed depending how far the object is from the center of the orbit.

Looking at these planets/stars in the galaxy, scientists have discovered that the orbital speed of the objects is much higher than what it logically should be. Why is the speed of these objects higher than what it should be? Nobody really knows. A good guess would be that this orbital speed is required to maintain the structure of the galaxy. Without the higher orbital speeds, the galaxy cannot hold itself together. It will fall apart. Everything is precise in nature, so this increased orbital speed is required to maintain the galaxy as one unit.

Based on the standard calculations, the orbital speed of objects must have a certain value, depending how far the object is from the center. However, we see the speed is much higher. How does the object increase its speed? The object cannot increase its speed on its own. The only way to increase speed is to compress the Time Fabric around the object. Compressing the Time Fabric means that time slows down. We know from the theory of special relativity, when time slows down, the speed of the object increases. You may ask the question, who compresses the Time Fabric to increase the speed of the object? This is not an easy question to answer. Like so many other things, nature has the intelligence to compress the Time Fabric to slow down time. This slowing down of time, increases the orbital speed of the object.

The slowing down of time in the vertical timelines also affects the horizontal timelines. Time slows down in the horizontal timelines also, and they become more compressed, just like the vertical timelines, but in this case, it is the acceleration which increases.  This happens because the horizontal timelines follow the t2 function. This increase in acceleration and therefore, in orbital speed, means the gravitational pull is much stronger on the orbiting object.

Another effect of the slowing of time and increase in the gravitational pull is that the slope of the curvature of the Time Fabric will also change. This change in the slope will mean the curvature of the Time Fabric will be much deeper than what it should be. This is a key point to understand and remember.

The energy profile of the object or object energy will bend the Time Fabric and create a certain curvature. The slowing of time and increase in the speed of the of object, creates a much deeper curvature. The object’s energy does not fill up the deeper curvature of the Time Fabric. This area in the Time Fabric cannot be left empty. The gravitational energy which interacts with the Time Fabric fills up the balance of the curvature. So, the deeper curvature of the Time Fabric that is created contains both the object’s energy and gravitational energy.

Time Fabric Curvature Energy = Object Energy + Additional Gravitational Energy

When dark energy is stretching Time Fabric to create space, the object’s energy is converted into visible matter and the additional gravitational energy is converted to dark matter. So, dark matter is the direct result of the additional gravitational energy which is required to maintain the enhanced rotational speed of the object.

Dark matter is available in all parts of the universe, where the orbital speed of planetary objects is higher than what the physical calculation will show. Scientists have estimated dark matter makes up 26% of the energy requirement in this universe.

If you want to find and understand dark matter, it is important to study the horizontal timelines in the curvature of the Time Fabric. The change in slope of the horizontal timelines in the Time Fabric directly results in the creation of gravitational energy. This gravitational energy is the source of dark matter.

So, in conclusion we can say that the mystery of dark energy and dark matter can be solved if a better understanding of the Time Fabric is gained. Science should focus its attention on the study of the Time Fabric, which operates in the 4th dimension.

Are We Robots?

Are we Robots? It is a strange question. The answer is yes and no. The answer would depend on how the question is asked and about whom we are talking about. Let me explain this further.

A robot is nothing but a machine that can replicate certain human movements and functions. These movements and functions are pre-programmed in a robot. What is the difference between us and a robot? The main difference is the mind. We have a mind and the robot does not have a mind. The mind is a complex instrument. This mind allows us to think, make decisions, be aware of ourselves and have feelings and emotions by exercising our free will.  The robot does not have a mind and therefore lacks these functions. Its functions are limited to what has been pre-programmed for the robot.

Let us ask the following two questions to set the discussion:

Ask yourself if you are a robot? The answer would be a definite No. We are aware of everything around us. We make our own decisions. We have free will, allowing us freedom of speech and movement. We have emotions and feelings. We also a mind and we know we have a mind. We know the mind is within our bodies. Anything without a mind must be a robot. Since our body and mind are all rolled into one unit, we are not a robot. This seems logical.

Are people around you robots? I am sure your first reaction will be that, people around are human beings and so they are not robots. Okay, people around are human beings but are the mind and body of these people at the same location? I am sure you cannot guarantee that. You can see the body of the people around you, but you cannot see their minds. You cannot be 100% sure if the mind is with them. You do assume that since you have the mind/body complex within yourself, all the people around will also have the body/mind complex within themselves. It does seem that way. Unfortunately, this is a wrong assumption. You may have the body/mind in one place, but the people around you do not have the body and mind in one place. Yes, this is true!

Let us discuss this further. We will show that the mind of everyone around you is within you, and their body is in the space out there. The body and mind are separated.

Location of Mind?

Where is the mind located? Intuitively we know that the mind is not located in space. You cannot find the mind anywhere in space. Why? What you find in space is a gross matter only. Visible objects. The mind is subtle, it is not something you cannot touch or see. It is therefore impossible to find the mind in space. The Mind must be outside space. How to find something outside space? The best way would be to find the start point of space. When this is found, we can guess that the mind will be outside that starting point. 

To hunt for the starting point of the space, you must look at space out there in terms of time and not distances. We must look for t = 0 for space. We are so used to measure everything in space in terms of distances. The tree is 50 feet away; the plane is flying at a height of 30,000 feet. You can also look at the same objects in terms of how much time light will take to reach us from different objects. Since we will be looking at objects in terms of time, this will help visualize the space differently.

Let us study the external objects ‘out there’. If we can see a faraway star, say 5 million light- years away, it takes light from that star 5 million years to reach us. Now, we see the sun, the light from the sun takes 8 min to reach us. We look at the moon; its light will take 3 seconds to reach us. We look at the plane flying in the sky, at 30,000 feet; its light takes about 300 milliseconds to reach us. As the distance of the object being viewed is reduced, the time taken for light to reach us or for us to see it is much smaller. I now look at the tree outside the window; the time taken for light to reach me is 10 microseconds (10-6). For instance, I am looking at the computer screen 1 ft away typing this article, then the light will take about 1 nanosecond (10-9). As the distance reduces the time taken for light also reduces. The size of the space gets reduced. If you extrapolate this backward, the only logical place for time to be equal to 0 is the mind, which is watching all these objects. At t =0 there is no space. This means that the mind within you is the starting point of the space. The Mind is the t = 0 for the space. The Mind is just outside space, and space starts where the mind ends. This will apply to every living being. Each must understand that t = 0 for space is within him or her. It does seem space is everywhere, but the starting point of this space is within each one of us. This does seem counterintuitive, but we have just shown that the starting point for space is within us.

Your mind, my mind and every mind are always at t = 0. We know t = 0 is the ‘now’ moment. So, for the ‘now’ or t = 0 moment, there is unity among everyone’s mind. All the minds are at one spot (timewise), which is outside the space. The mind never moves, it is always at t= 0, it is always outside the space. There is always a ‘now’ moment, therefore the unity of all the minds is always maintained. We have just seen that the t = 0 or the ‘now’ moment is within each one of us. This means at this ‘now’ moment, your mind, and the entire cosmic mind which includes all the minds is present within us. Can you guess the number of individual minds in this universe? I think it is countless. Imagine the population of humans, animals, creatures, plants, etc. To this, you can add life to other planets. All these countless minds are within us at t = 0 or the ‘now’ moment. Wow – what a feeling!

Location of the human body

So, the mind is outside space. For me, my mind and all the minds in the universe is within me. For you also, your mind’ my mind and all the minds in the universe is within you. This will apply to each living being. What about the body? The body is within space. We see our body; we see the body of other people. We have just seen that our mind is outside space, but our body is within space. How do we understand this?

Our Own Body – We always know that our mind is within our body. We know this for a fact. We never experience our body to be here and the mind is somewhere. We never have an out of body experience. The body and mind are always together, and they are never separated.

See the contradiction – the mind is outside space, but the body which contains the mind is always within the space. In fact, the body is all over the space. Today it is here, tomorrow it is flying to India, going to a restaurant and always moving within the space. How to understand this issue? If the mind is outside space, then the only logical way to understand this issue is that the body is always at the starting point of space. The start of space is always your body. The first object in space is your body, and then all other objects you see out there. This way both the mind and body complex remain in one place.

Since our body/mind complex is in one place, we are not robots. We have free-will and self-awareness

Body of other people: If your friend is sitting 100 feet away, does he have his body and mind in one place. Not really. Why? You are not seeing the ‘now’ version of a friend. Light takes 0.10 µs to reach you. You will see the ‘now’ version of your friend when the light will take zero time to reach you. That is impossible. You will always see a dated version of your friend. In this case, you see (now – 0.10 µs) version of your friend. Not only friends, but all the people around you are also the dated versions of themselves. You might say µs = 10-6 sec is a small number and the human mind cannot discern these small-time scales. That is true, but nature does not operate with this time scale. Based on Plank Constant, the smallest time frame is 10-44 seconds. Nature operates with this time scale. As compared with 10-44 seconds, 10-6 sec is like an eternity. We may not notice and be unable to discern, but it must be clear that we are always seeing a dated version of the people around us.

Let us compare this with the actors in a movie. When you watch a movie, you never see the live versions of the actors; you will always see a recorded or dated version of the actors. If I ask you, is the mind of the actors with them on the screen. Your answer will be a ‘no’. You only see the body version of the actor. The mind will available only with the live or ‘now’ version of the actor. The live or ‘now’ version of the actor is somewhere else and not on the screen. The actor on the screen does not have the mind, but only the dated version of the body.

This is exactly what is happening to your friends and the people around you. They are like the actors on the screen. Like the actors on the screen, you only see the dated version of your friend and the people around you. They are the dated version because light takes a finite time to reach us. If this correct, you only see the body of your friend and the people around you. Their mind is not with the dated version of the body. Their mind is elsewhere. Where? It is outside space; it is at t = 0 location. We have seen the t = 0 location is only within each one of us. So, the mind of your friend and people around you are within you. I know this is not easy to accept or grasp, but if you think about this reasoning is correct and logical.  So, your friend and people you see are just a body and the mind are located within you which are outside space.

So, your friend and people around you are really robots, with a body. Their mind is within you and the dated version of the body is in space. This mind is like remote control, it manages all the activities of the remote body. All the intelligence which the body shows is controlled and managed by the mind from a remote location. The remote mind tells the body to speak and then the body speaks. The mind thinks and signals the body to get in the car, or to get an ice-cream. The mind controls all the actions of the body. The human body you see around is just the body with no mind in it. The mind is at a remote location.

If your friend is sitting in front of you, then his/her physical body may be in front of you, but his mind is within you. Your friend will also have the same experience. He/she will see your physical body in the front, but your mind is also within him/her. If there 10 people sitting in the same room, each one of them will have the same experience. Each of them will see the 9 physical bodies out there, but all the 10 minds will be within each one of them at t = 0.

To conclude each one of us knows we are not robots because the body/mind complex is pivoted at one place. But for all the people around us, they are really like robots. Their mind is within you and this mind is like remote control, it manages all the activities of the body which is scattered all over space.

Three Forms of Reality

If you are a student of Vedanta, you are taught that SatChitAnanada or Brahman is the only Reality. It is explained that SatChitAnanda is our innermost core and the Brahman is the underlying reality of the universe. With the powerful Mahavakya (Major Sentence) ‘Tat Tvam Asi – That You Are’, Vedanta makes a connection between our inner core SatChitAnandaand Brahman. That (Brahman) You (SatChitAnanada) Are. This way Vedanta explains that Brahman and SatChitAnanada are the same, there exists no dichotomy between the two and they are identical. Your innermost core and the underlying reality of the universe is the same. There is only One Reality.

As explained in my article ‘SatChitAnanda vs Self Awareness’, that both SatChitAnanada and Self-Awareness are identical. I always find Awareness is a much easier way to understand our inner core and if we get to know the tone and nature of contemplation then this awareness becomes much easier to reach our inner core.

Vedanta teaches us that SatChitAnanada is the only Reality. Since SatChitAnanada and Awareness are identical, it is correct to conclude that Awareness is also the only Reality. Awareness and SatChitAnanda are synonyms. Awareness is our inner most core and Awareness is also the underlying Reality of the universe. Does that mean that Awareness of the inner core is different from the Awareness of the universe out there? No, they are identical, but they are different forms of the same Awareness. Awareness is One, but there are different Forms. Can there be different forms of the same single Reality?

Yes, the best example is H2O. H2O is one, but it comes in 3 different forms – liquid, vapor and solid. In liquid form it is called water, in vapor form it is called steam and solid form it is called ice. H2O remains the same in all the three different forms. In the same way, Awareness is the only Reality, but it comes in following 3 different forms:

  1. Self-Awareness
  2. Reflected Awareness
  3. Refracted Awareness

The Bible touches upon these 3 forms by the famous Trinity quote ‘Father, Son and the Holy Spirit’. These are 3 forms of the same reality. An equivalent statement from Vedanta could be ‘Brahman, Ishvara and the Guru’. Not any type of Guru, but a pure self-realized Guru. These 3 types can be co-related with the 3 forms mentioned. SatChitAnanda is the same as Self Awareness. Ishvara is another name for Reflected Awareness and Guru and Refracted Awareness are identical.

The focus of this article is to explain these connections and the 3 forms of Reality in more detail.

Self-Awareness and SatChitAnanda

It is very important to understand what Awareness is. A simple question – are you aware of reading this article? Are you aware of your surroundings? Are you aware of any background noise? If your answer is not yes, then you will not experience anything. You will not know you are reading this article; you will not be aware of your surroundings; you will not be aware of the background noise. In fact, without Awareness, you will not be aware of anything of the external universe out there

When this Awareness interacts with this article, you have the experience of reading this article. Awareness has intelligence and the power of reading within itself. When Awareness interacts with the background noise, you have the experience of hearing the background noise. That is because the power of hearing is part of Awareness. Without awareness, we would not know any objects which are perceived by all the five sense organs – eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. These objects from the sensory organs must encounter Awareness, and then only we can experience the object in its concrete and viable form.

For an analogy, let us think of the sun. If there is no light emanating from the sun, the entire world will be dark; anything and everything become visible only when there is light. In the same way, when any form encounters the light of Awareness, we become aware of the object. If there is no light of Awareness, you will perceive nothing, not even the sun. 

Awareness is the most powerful force in the universe. It has the intelligence to connect with a form present in the mind and fill up the object with Awareness. If you analyze Awareness, you will conclude that Awareness is made up of a Subject, Intelligence, and it also has an Object with the following functions:

  1. There must be a Subject, who is Aware of the experience. This subject is the ‘knower’ of the Awareness
  2. There must be an Object, which must be experienced. This object is the ‘known’ part of the Awareness
  3. There must be Intelligence by which the subject gets to know the object. This is the ‘knowing’ part of the Awareness

Knower, Known and Knowing/Intelligence are the 3 powers of Awareness. It must be clear that

  • Awareness = Subject + Object + Intelligence
  • Power of Awareness = Power of Knower + Power of Knowing + Power of Known

Awareness is made of Subject, Intelligence, and Object and it has three different powers – Knower, Knowing and Known. It must be understood that the Subject, Intelligence, and Object and the three powers are not something outside in the world, but they are within Awareness and they only make up Awareness. Wherever there is awareness, the Subject, Intelligence and Object must be present with all the three powers.

For a more detailed explanation of Awareness, please read my post ‘Analyzing Awareness

What is Self-Awareness? Our inner core is full, complete and it is stand alone. For Awareness to be full and complete, it must be Self-Aware. Self-Awareness means that ‘Awareness is aware of Awareness’. Another way to put this is that ‘Self is aware of the Self’. It is like saying ‘I am aware of the tree’. Here ‘I am’ can be referred as the subject and the tree is the object. In Self-Awareness, the subject is Awareness and the object is Awareness. Awareness plays the role of subject and object. In other words, both the subject and object are the same. There is one entity only which is non-dual. This complete, self-standing Self Awareness is our inner core. There is no separation between the subject and object. Even the power of Knower (subject/witness) is the same as Power of Known (Object making ability). Self-Awareness is one non-dual and homogenous. It is Self-Shining.

This Self-shining Awareness is like Bulb of Awareness and it is our inner core. It is not dependent upon anything else and it generates its own light of Awareness. And it is the Bulb of Awareness.  

Self-Awareness is non-dual, homogenous and it has many inherent characteristics.

  • It is Formless
  • It is Unchanging
  • It is Unborn
  • It has the 3 powers of Awareness – the power of knower, knowing and known

SatChitAnanda is the name given to this inner core of Self-Awareness. This inner core is present in every living being. So, it is present within you, me and within everyone. This Self-Awareness just shines like of bulb of Awareness, and it does not do anything, except radiating Awareness. Nothing affects Self-Awareness and is independent of everything. It is always at peace. Peace is its inherent nature. Because Self-Awareness does not anything, all the characteristics mentioned are lying dormant within Self-Awareness.

Reflected Awareness and Ishvara

If our nature and inner core is Self-Awareness, why don’t we know it, why don’t we feel it? The simple answer is that we are ignorant of our inner core. Ignorance has the power to cover Self-Awareness. When we forget, who we really are, ignorance pops up and covers our inner core. Ignorance is like a veil covering Awareness.

Self-Awareness does not do anything; it just keeps shining. When this Self-Awareness is covered by ignorance, this Self-Awareness gets reflected in the ignorance. Ignorance is like a mirror in which reflection takes place. What you get then is Reflected Awareness. When the sun is reflected in a mirror, you still have the sun and you also have a reflected sun. This is exactly what happens here.  You have SatChitAnanda, the non-dual Self-Awareness and the Reflected Awareness. This Reflected Awareness is called Ishvara.

  • It is quite strange to know that our ignorance is the cause of Ishvara, which is Reflected Awareness. If there was no ignorance, there would be no reflected Awareness, and then there would be no Ishvara also. If there was no ignorance, the only thing present would be Brahman, the self-shining Self-Awareness. So, our ignorance is the cause of Ishvara.
  • Even if there is Reflected Awareness, nothing happens to the non-dual Self Awareness or SatChitAnanda. It will continue to shine, irrespective if there is ignorance or there is no ignorance. This is like the sun which will shine even if it is cloudy, or it is the night. Nothing can stop the sun from shining. Similarly, Self-Awareness will continue to shine if there is ignorance or ignorance.
  • It must be understood that in the presence of ignorance, there is no effect on Reflected Awareness. Reflected Awareness remains pure and unaffected. This does seem counterintuitive.  It would be reasonable to assume that ignorance will rub off some of its ignorance on the reflected Awareness or Ishvara. Then again, we know Ishvara is pure, limitless and just cannot have any ignorance.  How to understand this? The classic example that can be narrated here is, suppose you pour water in a red-colored bottle. The water will appear to be red. It seems the redness of the bottle has affected the water. Our ignorance can lead to this conclusion. If you have proper knowledge you will know that the water in the bottle is always colorless and the red color of the bottle has no effect on the water. It is with this logic; we can understand that Ignorance has no effect on the Reflected Awareness, or, Ishvara is pure and limitless.
  • Ignorance has two sides, an input and output side. The Reflected Awareness appears on the input side of ignorance. We will discuss the output side of ignorance in the next section.

We have seen that Self-Awareness is nondual, in which ‘Self’ is both the subject and object. Unfortunately, because of our ignorance, we have forgotten that our inner core is nondual, and we are both the subject and the object. Since we no longer know that we are both the subject and the object, it simply means that there is a separation of the subject being ‘in here’ and the object being ‘out there’. Ignorance converts the non-duality into the duality of the subject in here and the object out there. Ignorance has that power.

In the non-dual Self Awareness, the power behind the subject is the Power of the Knower and the power behind of object is the Power of the Known. In non-duality, the subject and object are the same. Therefore, logically the power of the knower is the same as the power of known. There are homogenous with no separation. This is what happens in non-dual Self Awareness or Brahman. We have just seen that because of ignorance, the subject and object separate creating duality. With this separation, even the power of the knower and the power of known get separated. They are no longer one entity, but the power of the knower and the power of the known appear as two separate entities in Reflected Awareness. Even the 3rd power of Knowing is available in the Reflected Awareness. Each of these 3 powers of Awareness is very much active in Ishvara.

Vedanta teaches us that Maya Shakti is the power or force behind the creation and intelligence of the universe. Power of known, the power of knowing and the power of known are now available in the Reflected Awareness. These 3 powers are nothing, but the Maya Shakti as mentioned in Vedanta.

Maya Shakti = Power of Knower + Power of Knowing + Power of Known

This Maya Shakti is within the Reflected Awareness and Ishvara wields this Maya Shakti to operate and control this universe. The Maya Shakti is lying dormant within Self-Awareness, within the Self-Shining Bulb of Awareness. Due to ignorance, this Maya Shakti becomes active within the Reflected Awareness. The nature of Awareness remains the same, the Reflected Awareness or Ishvara is a different form of Awareness. In this form the Reflected Awareness wields of power of Maya Shakti to create, control and manage the universe. In Reflected Awareness, the Self-Awareness becomes Ishvara.

Refracted Awareness and Guru

In the earlier section we saw that Ishvara as the Reflected Awareness is on the input side of ignorance. In this section, we will discuss the output side of ignorance. This is the side the Guru functions. Before we do that, let us decode ignorance and get a better understanding of ignorance.

Pixel of Ignorance:

It is important to understand the process of Knowledge and the lack of knowledge (ignorance), shows that there are different degrees of ignorance. This ignorance plays a central role in our existence.

Let us start by taking an example of the knowledge of Chinese language. If someone has a complete knowledge about the Chinese language, he knows everything that is possible; this person will have 100% knowledge about the Chinese language. On the other end of the scale, there are people who are completely ignorant about the language; they are 100% ignorant about this language. Every living being in the universe will fall in between this scale of 100% knowledge to 100% ignorance. So, there is a knowledge/ignorance profile about the Chinese language. Take another subject, say Mathematics. Here again, there will be a scale of 100% knowledge to 100% ignorance. People will fall somewhere in the scale of 100% knowledge to 100% ignorance. So, there is a knowledge/ignorance profile for mathematics. In the same way, there must be a knowledge/ignorance profile for every possible topic or object in the universe. If we combine this scale of 100% knowledge to 100% ignorance for every topic, we will get a cumulative knowledge/ignorance profile for all the possible topics and objects. Within this cumulative knowledge/ignorance scale, each person will know his/her own knowledge or ignorance profile. Each living being has more knowledge on some topics and less or no knowledge of the other topics. In other words, every being will have each of their own unique knowledge/ignorance profile.

To the knowledge/ignorance profile of objects, you must also add the knowledge profile of the Self. Here again, the spectrum can be broken down into countless parts and each part has a different amount of Ignorance. An enlightened person will have 100% knowledge of the Self, while a completely ignorant person will have 0% knowledge or 100% ignorance.

In this cumulative and complicated knowledge/ignorance profile, if you can imagine there are countless number of ‘pixels of ignorance’. Each ‘pixel of ignorance’ has its own unique mix of ignorance and knowledge. Each ‘pixel of ignorance’ represents a single individual living being with his/her own ignorance/knowledge profile. There is countless number of living beings and each living being has his/her own ‘pixel of ignorance’. You have a pixel of ignorance and I have a pixel of ignorance, and in the same way every living being has its own unique pixel of ignorance.

We have seen that on the input side of ignorance, the Reflected Awareness is present with duality, with separate subject, object and the intelligence. This reflected Awareness or the Ishvara, makes the pixel conscious and sentient. When this pixel of ignorance interacts with the reflected Awareness, it breaks up the Self-Awareness into the following 4 parts. We know that Self Awareness is made up of the following 4 parts:

Self-Awareness = Self + Subject + Intelligence + Objects

It is like refraction. Place a prism in front of the light and we can see the 7 different colors on the other side. In the same ways, the ignorance of the Self within the pixel refracts the reflected Awareness into the following 4 different components. 

  • Manas – The home of the objects
  • Buddhi – The home of the inteliignece
  • Sakshi – The home of the subject
  • Ahamkara (ego) – The home of the self

These 4 components make up the mind. The creation of the mind is the output side of the pixel of ignorance. The mind is the part of the subtle body. So, the ignorance of the Self has that power to create the mind.  

Mind = Refracted Awareness + Ignorance

There are a countless number of pixels of ignorance – one for each individual living being. This refraction takes place in each pixel and thereby countless minds are created. Each mind thus created, will be different; it will depend upon the knowledge/ignorance profile for each pixel. The simple calculation is this: more the ignorance, less efficient the mind. It will have a lower intelligence level. The opposite is also true, lower is the level of ignorance, the mind finds the right passage to evolve fast.

A Sattvic mind will have no ignorance. In Sanskrit Sattvic means pure. This means a pure mind with no Ignorance. This is the mind of a true Guru. These days the term Guru is overused, and it can mean a teacher or expert. In Vedanta, the term Guru is much more specific, it means a self- realized spiritual person with no ignorance.

Guru’s Mind = Refracted Awareness (no ignorance)

The Guru’s mind with no ignorance is no different from SatChitAnanda. Guru is SatChitAnanda in human form.

The Guru’s mind has no ignorance. What does this mean? It means that the Guru knows that his innermost core is Self-Awareness. He knows that it is his inherent nature. He knows he is full and complete, displays a higher quality of mind, knowledge, reflection and free from materialistic desires. He is at peace with everything good and bad. This state is permanent; it is not a fluctuating state. His mind is always immersed in Awareness. In fact, it is correct to say that the Guru has no mind, he has only Self-Awareness. The Guru abides in the source and has no need for the mind.

Almost every living being experiences duality – the subject ‘in here’ and the object ‘out there’.  This is our daily experience. We have seen ignorance of our non-dual nature of Self Awareness, leading to duality with the separation of the subject and the object. Since the Guru does not experience duality, does that mean that the Guru does not perceive the universe ‘out there’? That is incorrect; he perceives the world out there, but experiences non-duality. The Guru’s perceives world and knows it part of the Self, which is nature.

The Guru is not ignorant; the Guru operates on the side of Refracted Awareness. He knows that his true nature is Self-Awareness. He has no confusion regarding this. Since the content of all the objects is Awareness, the Guru who is Self-Aware of sees his true nature of Awareness in all the objects of the universe.  He sees no difference between his own Self and all the objects out there. He therefore sees nonduality everywhere in the universe. He sees all the form of the objects, but he sees them as Awareness, as his own Self.

Knowing is Boss (of Everything)

Yes, Knowing is the Boss. Knowing means to Know. There is much more to Knowing than this simple definition. If you are a student of Vedanta, you will understand that Knowing is the same as Awareness or Consciousness or Chit. Knowing is the most powerful force in the universe and surprisingly this Knowing is our inner core. Knowing is the nature of the Real Self or I. The main goal of this article is to understand the real meaning of Knowing. Understand the power of Knowing. If you properly understand this, it is the most direct way to discover your real Self.

Let us start our discussion with the following statements, we make every day:

  • I am listening to music
  • I am reading this book
  • I am thinking to travel
  • I am talking on the phone
  • I am seeing a tree

If you analyze these statements, you will notice that each statement has a subject ‘I am’. Each statement has a different object – music, book, travel, phone, and tree respectively. There is a verb which is connecting the subject with the object. More than a verb, there is an inherent power of intelligence which is connecting the subject with the object. This power reveals the object to the subject. How to understand this power of intelligence?

Let us take an example of the power of listening, which is connecting ‘I am’ with the music. If you follow science, it will tell us that the music waveform from the source will hit our eardrums. The job of the eardrum is to convert this into some form of an acoustic signal. This acoustic signal is then transmitted to the brain. What happens in the brain/mind is not known, but we do listen to music. There is an existent power in our mind, which decodes and understands the incoming acoustic signal so that the subject ‘I am’ can listen to the music. This decoding power and understanding within the mind are nothing but the power of listening, which makes the actual ‘act’ of listening possible.  This power of listening is made up of intelligence with sole role of making listening possible.

Let us take another example of seeing. Power of seeing has intelligence, which makes it possible for ‘I am’ to know and see a tree. Without the power of seeing, none of us will see any object. Someone may argue that the eye provides this power. The eye does nothing other than converting the image into an optical signal and bringing the signal to the mind. What is the ability that decodes this optical signal into the understanding that this object is a tree? It is the power of the seeing, which is within Intelligence and which allows us to know that there is a tree. This power of seeing knows that the optical signal is a tree.

The same similarly applies to reading, thinking, or talking. There is a power of reading, power of thinking and power of talking. All these powers encapsulate the crux of intelligence. In fact, you can apply this logic to a much wider range of statements. Any statement which connects the subject with the object is connected by the power of intelligence.

Let us add another dimension by repeating the same statements in the following way. Please just do not read these statements but read this slowly as if you are undertaking these tasks. I agree, we will not talk in the following manner, but the sentence has been constructed in this manner to highlight the knowing part. Normally you would replace ‘I am knowing…..’ with ‘I know……’.

  • I am knowing that I am listening to music
  • I am knowing that I am reading this book
  • I am knowing that I am thinking to travel
  • I am knowing that I am talking on the phone
  • I am knowing that I am seeing a movie

1. There is a tremendous change in these statements as compared to the earlier statements. ‘I am listening to music’, ‘I am reading this book’ etc., is no longer a self-contained sentence, but they are the object in the statement. The ‘I am’, in ‘I am listening…..’ is no longer the subject, but it is part of the object. The ‘I am’ in ‘I am reading……’ is now part of the object. When you said, ‘I am listening to music’, you always felt that ‘I am’ is really my inner core. You had the impression that ‘I am’ referred to your own self.

2. However, the moment you apply the Knowing part to the sentence, everything seems to change. A new ‘I am’ pops up, and the earlier ‘I am’ becomes a part of the object. Can there be two ‘I am’ within you? Obviously not. Vedanta teaches that there is a universal Real Self which is our common inner core. The ‘I am’ in ‘I am knowing…’ is your real Self and the earlier ‘I am’ in ‘I am listening…..’ is really part of the part of an object. If this is understood, this can be a big change in our perspective.

This ‘I am’ in ‘I am listening……’ is really your ego. The ego always thinks it is the real Self. Vedanta teaches that the ego masquerades as the real I, but when you make a proper inquiry, you will find that the ego is like any other object. Ego is just another thought in the mind.

3. Daily, as you apply the Knowing part to every sentence you say or think you will discover your Real Self within you. The ‘I am’ in ‘I am knowing….’ is your Real Self. Whenever you are doing any activity and watch carefully how the knowing part pops out within you. Repeatedly, say ‘I know this’, ‘I know that and focus on the ‘I know’ part, you will find out that the Knowing part comes out from a spiritual heart.

You could live your entire life saying ‘‘I am listening to music’, ‘I am reading this book’ etc. This way you will never discover your Real Self. The Real Self will remain hidden. The moment you add ‘I am Knowing’ or ‘I know’ to all your activities, the Knowing part pops out from the spiritual heart. The spiritual heart is not your physical heart but is your seed body. This is similar to how the seed of a tree has a potential of the tree within the seed. The tree seed can become a tree only, that to a specific type of tree. A mango tree seed cannot become an apple tree. In the same way, each one of us has a seed body. This seed body plays out the blueprint of our life. This seed body is our spiritual heart. According to Ramana Maharshi, it is two fingers from the center on the right-side rib cage.

4. Knowing is nothing but the intelligence which connects the subject ‘I am’ with different objects. Knowing is the common element which connects the subject with all the different objects in the universe. If you study the statements made earlier, you will realize that Knowing is the ultimate intelligence. Knowing knows listening, Knowing knows reading, Knowing knows thinking, Knowing knows talking and Knowing knows seeing. The power of Knowing includes the power of listening, reading, thinking, talking and seeing. The scope and width of the Power of Knowing is infinite, and it encompasses everything which is to be known in the universe. To put it differently, the power of listening, reading, thinking, talking and seeing etc, all these powers come out from the Power of Knowing. Power of Knowing is the ultimate intelligence.

Someone might say, I am knowing that I cannot speak Chinese. The ego I cannot speak Chinese and Real I knows that fact. That does not mean that the ‘Real I’ does not know Chinese. The knowledge of Chinese is within Knowing. If you now learn Chinese, the ego I will speak Chinese and the Real I will know this fact.

Knowing is indeed the boss of all the knowledge and intelligence in the universe. The question to ask is from where does all the knowledge and intelligence come from?

The simple answer is Awareness. Understand Awareness and you will lean that Knowing is a key ingredient of Awareness.

Understanding Awareness

Awareness is the most powerful force in the universe, and it is the underlying reality of this universe. It has the power to connect with a form present in the mind and create an experience that you are aware of. If you carefully study Awareness, you will conclude that the Awareness is made up of a Subject, Object, and Intelligence with the following functions

  1. There must be a Subject, who is Aware of the experience. This subject is the knower of Awareness.
  2. There must be an Object, which must be experienced. This object is the known part of the Awareness.
  3. There must be Intelligence by which the subject gets to know the object. This is the knowing part of the Awareness

Knower, Known and Knowing are the 3 powers of Awareness. It must be clear that

  • Awareness = Subject + Object + Intelligence
  • Power of Awareness = Power of Knower + Power of Knowing + Power of Known

Wherever there is awareness, the Subject, Object and Intelligence must be present with all the three powers. At this moment you are aware you are reading this article. This awareness has a subject, object and intelligence.

The Power of Knowing is the key power of Awareness. In Awareness, Subject and Object are things and its functions are limited. The power of Knower only witnesses what is available to witness. The power of the Known has the power to become the different objects in the universe. The Power of Knowing is crucial; it decodes the objects and lets the subject witness these objects. This intelligence or the Power of Knowing is the driving force of Awareness and completes any experience in the mind.  

The Knowing/Intelligence within Awareness has an unlimited range of power, in fact, it is infinite. We can comprehend only what experiences our mind can handle. Our mind is full of ignorance and has a limited Power of Knowing. Awareness is not limited by the capacity of our mind. It is much more and has an infinite amount of intelligence; it has an infinite amount of knowledge about everything possible. What is amazing, this unlimited intelligence, this pure intelligence, this Knowing is available within everyone’s mind. Remove the deep-rooted ignorance and unlimited power of Knowing will be available to everyone.

Understanding the Fabric of Space

Is there a fabric for space? Is there an underlying fabric on which the entire universe rests? Looking at the space in all its vast eternity, we do not see any fabric. The space looks empty and only the distant stars and planets are visible, but no fabric can be seen. However, if you are a student of science and follow the latest happenings, you would have seen the formed images as follows:

The above images represent the fabric of space. It may not be visible in the universe out there, but Einstein with the discovery of the theory of Relativity confirmed the presence of the fabric for space. This fabric is not your typical fabric, this fabric is made up of time. Yes, it is made up of time. A concept not easy to grasp. Einstein showed that space and time were interlinked, and he changed the terminology from ‘space and time’ to ‘spacetime’. This spacetime had 4 specific dimensions, among which the 3 dimensions are for space and the 4th is for time. We can visualize the 3 dimensions out there in space. We are used to the 3 dimensions. Time is supposed to be a 4th dimension. It is hard to understand and visualize the 4th dimension of time. The fact is that, the spacetime fabric is made up of time and it operates in the 4th dimension.

One of the objectives of the theory of relativity was to show that in the presence of energy, time slows down. The slowing down of time is represented by the spacetime fabric bending or it curves around an object. This bending or curvature is like placing a heavy ball on a stretched-out rubber sheet. The weight of the ball will curve the rubber sheet around itself. The spacetime fabric operates in a similar manner. Place a heavy ball of mass on the spacetime fabric, the spacetime fabric curves around the object. It is to be noted here that the heavier the mass, greater is the curvature. A blackhole as shown above has a much deeper curvature as the mass of the blackhole is much greater.

The images above do show the spacetime fabric, but there are many unanswered questions that do follow:

1. Let us take for instance that the fabric is made up of time and it operates in the 4th dimension. A good question – where exactly is the 4th dimension? We know that thespace has 3 dimensions only. It is impossible for time to function in the 3 dimensions of space out there. So, where do time and 4th dimension function?

2. If the fabric is made up of time, then there must be a t = 0 for the fabric. There must be a start point for the spacetime fabric. Where is the t = 0 for the fabric?

3. Time is never static; it is always moving forward. So, what is the implication of this forward- moving time on the spacetime fabric?

4. Did you notice that the spacetime fabric is not a continuous, it is represented by a grid. Why a grid and why not a continuous fabric?

5. Spacetime and the Einstein theory of relativity are interconnected. What impact these theories have on time and on the spacetime fabric?

So, we can see that there are many unanswered questions regarding the fabric of the space. We will try and answers these questions in this article.   

The unanswered questions can be summarized as follows:

  1. Location of the Spacetime Fabric
  2. Start Point of the Spacetime Fabric
  3. Construction of the Spacetime Fabric
  4. Creation of Space
  5. Expansion of the Space
  6. Spacetime Fabric and Special Relativity
  7. Energy and Spacetime Fabric

Location of the Spacetime Fabric

Where is the time based spacetime fabric located? It should be at the same place where time is located. We have seen earlier that time is supposed to the 4th dimension. In that case, then, the spacetime fabric is also operating in the 4th dimension. Where is the 4th dimension? To hunt down the 4th dimension, let us understand the functioning of time.

Most people would try and locate time in the space out there. In other words, they would try and locate the 4th dimension within the 3 dimensions of space. For time to be effective, it must operate in the following 3 zones.

  • Past
  • Present or Now
  • Future

Are these 3-time zones available in the space out there? The answer is a definite NO. Why? Try and focus on the space out there. At any given moment, what you will always see in space is the Present or the ‘Now’ moment. You can never see the Past or the Future. There is no past or future in the space, there is always the Present or the Now moment. Just try it. At this moment, you will see the present only. What is the duration of the present? According to the plank constant, the smallest block of time is 10-44 sec. Once this extremely tiny time duration passes, the current present becomes the past and it is replaced by a new present. It always the Present or Now in space out there. There is no chance or possibility to have the past or the future in the space out there. 

As mentioned, time to function properly, it must have the ability to operate in the past, present and the future. This is not possible in space, because space only has the present moment, no past and future. Therefore, we need to look elsewhere for the 4th dimension for time and the spacetime fabric?

The only possible location is the mind. The mind is the storage of all the past events. We may not remember all events, but each moment of our lives is stored in the mind. We can and we do time travel into these past events regularly. Whenever the mind is idle, it is thinking of the past or daydreaming of the future. Also, time is never static; it is always moving forward. This forward push by time means that future events become the present and then the present becomes the past. All this happens in the mind only.

Vedanta has always been clear that time or ‘kala’ is present in the mind only. The source and location of time is the mind only.

Start Point of the Spacetime Fabric

It is not easy to grasp, but the spacetime fabric, which is made up of time is in the mind only. The space with all the objects is out there, but the fabric is within the mind only. As far as accepting or seeing and visualizing the concrete form of this spacetime fabric is concerned, it is not possible to locate it. You can only imagine or visualize the spacetime fabric. We are going to use this imagination to try and locate the start point of the spacetime fabric.

It is important to know the start point of the spacetime fabric. It will answer many unanswered questions. There must be a t = 0 for the fabric. Since the fabric is made up of time, it must have a start point, it must have a t = 0 location. The question is where this start point for the spacetime is?

We know the big bang happened about 13.7 billion years ago. We also know time started with the big bang. Before the big bang there was no time. Does that mean that the start point of the spacetime fabric occurs from the advent of the big bang? Yes, the start point of the spacetime fabric was the big bang, but it was the start point when the big bang happened. The big bang is no longer the start point or the t = 0 location for the fabric. Science really confuses the issue by saying the spacetime fabric starts with the big bang. Yes, time started 13.7 billion years back, but at this current moment, at this now moment, the t = 0 is for the spacetime fabric is not the big bang.  The big bang is the outer edge of the universe.

If not the big bang, where is the start point (t =0) for the spacetime fabric? To understand the t = 0 point for the spacetime fabric, you must look at space out there in terms of time and not distances. We measure everything in space in terms of distances. The tree is 50 feet away; the plane is flying at a height of 30,000 feet. You can also look at the same objects in terms of how much time light will take to reach us from different objects. Since we will be looking at objects in terms of time, this will help visualize the spacetime fabric.

Let us study the external objects ‘out there’. If we can see a faraway star, say 5 million light years away, it takes light from that star 5 million years to reach us. Now, we see the sun, the light from the sun takes 8 min to reach us. We look at the moon; its light will take 3 seconds to reach us. We look at the plane flying in the sky, at 30,000 feet; its light takes about 300 milliseconds to reach us. As the distance of the object being viewed is reduced, the time taken for light to reach us or for us to see it is much smaller. I now look at the tree outside the window; the time taken for light to reach me is 10 microseconds (10-6). For instance, I am looking at the computer screen 1 ft away typing this article, then light will take about 1 nanosecond (10-9). As the distance reduces the time taken for light also reduces. If you extrapolate this backward, the only logical place for it to be equal to 0 is the observer, who is watching all these objects. This means that the observer within you is the starting point of the spacetime fabric. This is the t = 0of the spacetime fabric. This means that the spacetime fabric starts with the observer within you.

If you or anyone else looks at the universe, they will reach the same conclusion. Everyone has their own spacetime fabric and t = 0 for the fabric is the observer within themselves. This will apply to every living being in the universe. It would seem; therefore, I have my own spacetime fabric, you have your own spacetime fabric and every living being in the universe has his or her own version of the spacetime fabric.

An important conclusion is that the t = 0 for the spacetime fabric start is always the observer with you.

Construction of the Spacetime Fabric

Logically you would expect that the spacetime fabric to be continuous. The images shown earlier, explain how the fabric is not continuous but it constitutes grid with discrete nodal points. Why? This is because time is not continuous. The time does feel continuous, but it is not continuous. Based on the Plank Constant, it is proven that time is made of discrete elements. The shortest separation between two discrete elements is 10-44 seconds. These discrete time elements make up the spacetime fabric. The start of the spacetime fabric is the t = 0, which is the observer within you. The first node will be at 10-44sec away from the observer. The second node will be at 2 x 10-44sec away, the third node will be 3 x 10-44away. With these small increments of the time nodes the entire spacetime fabric is built up. 10-44is small value. The human mind can even comprehend this. Can you imagine the number time nodes in the fabric to reach the sun which is 8 min away or to a faraway star which is 5 million light-years away?

Do you see the entire spacetime fabric at any given time? No. If you are sitting within your house, the spacetime fabric will end at the four walls of the house. If you move out, during the daytime the spacetime fabric will end with the sun. The limit of the spacetime fabric really depends upon what you are watching.

Creation of Space

The timebased spacetime fabric within the mind creates the space out there? How? If you read the post ‘Awareness –The Infinite Energy Source’, you will find out there is infinite energy available in the cosmic mind.  The energy which is available in the mind is pure energy. This energy plays different roles within the mind. It must be understood that this energy is independent of time; it is raw or pure energy which is available in the mind. Let us see what happens when a part of this energy interacts with time in the individual mind. This energy stretches out time, so that every second in time is equal to 186,000 miles (speed of light). Just like a rubber band can be stretched outwards, in the same way, time can be stretched outwards by this pure energy. With this stretching of time, space is created. One second in space becomes 186,000 miles. This is the space we see ‘out there’. So, space is created when this pure energy stretches out time, which is part of our mind.

Expansion of Space

Does the universe expand? Science tells us the universe is expanding. Why is the universe expanding? How fast the universe is expanding? Science is not very sure about these questions. Using powerful telescopes, they have watched the movement of different planets and galaxies and noticed the expansion is uneven. Some places the expansion is faster and other places the expansion is slower. There is proper no explanation about this uneven expansion. There is immense confusion about this subject.

To remove this confusion and get a proper understanding about the expansion, you need to know the start point or t = 0 for the spacetime fabric and you need to know the end-point of the spacetime fabric. We have already seen that the t = 0 for the space is the observer within you. The observer within each one of us will always be the start point for the spacetime fabric.

Science tells us that the age of the universe is 13.7 billion years old. This is the big bang moment. Light reaching us (or the observer) from the big bang moment constitutes the outer edge of the spacetime fabric. Light takes 13.7 billion light-years to reach us from this big bang moment. This is the outer edge because there was no universe before the big bang.

Is this spacetime expanding? Yes. How much? Let us try and understand this. If you assume the universe is 13.7 billion years old ‘right now’. After one second, the age of the universe will be 13.7 billion years + 1 sec. The light must now travel an additional 186,000 miles to reach the observer, which means the size of the universe has grown by 186,000 miles. After 10 seconds then, the size of the universe would increase by 186,000 x 10 = 1,860,000 miles. After one year from now, the size of the universe will increase by 1 light year. 1 light year is the distance light travels in one year.

From the above, we can conclude that the rate of expansion of the outer edge of the universe = 1 light year per year.

If you can imagine the spacetime fabric as an elastic rubber sheet, starting from the start point t=0 (which means you) to the outer edge of the universe. The end at the observer’s side is fixed. It is always t = 0, it does not change. The other end which is the outer edge of the universe is being pulled outwards. The outer edge of the elastic space time fabric is expanding by 186,000 miles every second. It expands at the speed of light every second, which is one light year every year. As time flows, the expansion of the spacetime fabric continues at the speed of light.

It must be understood that only the outer edge of the universe is expanding at the speed of light, and so, anything in between will not expand at the same speed, it will be proportional to the distance from the observer. Using the rubber sheet example, if you pull the outer edge by a certain distance, the inner parts will not be stretched by the same amount. The stretching therefore will be more at the outer edges, and it will be much less as you move inwards to the other side which is fixed. This idea can also be applied to the spacetime framework. This means that the rate of outward expansion of galaxies, stars etc., would really depend upon how far these galaxies are from the observer. The observer is t=0. Stars close by will expand more slowly, as compared to stars which are further away. This is because the space time for the stars nearby will stretch less as compared to the stars which are further away. 

Spacetime Fabric and Special Relativity

Einstein theory of special relativity had and has a great impact on science. It gave a new perspective to many aspects of science. Not only science, but this theory also affects our daily life.  

Without going into much details, one of the major conclusions of this theory is that time and motion are interconnected. Put simply, wherever there is motion time slows down. Yes, time does slow down with motion. Your clock will slow down. Faster you go, slower the time becomes. The ultimate possible speed is the speed of light (186,000 miles per sec). At that speed of light time does not move but it becomes standstill. This connection between motion and time is a proven fact. We are always on the move, walking, running, driving a car, flying in a plane. All these are at different speeds. The implication is that with this motion, the pace of your clock will be different at different speed. Also, if you are sitting on a chair and your friend is running, the pace of time ticking you and your friend will be different. Yes, the time frame keeps changing with motion, but the change is very small that the human mind cannot notice it. We have seen the smallest time frame is 10-44sec. Mother Nature operates with these parameters and it is sensitive to these very small-time changes. It does make all the required time changes to very small change in speeds. The changes are happening in nature, but the human mind is unable to discern these small changes.

Okay, motion and time are interconnected. So, what happens to motion and the spacetime fabric. We know the fabric is made up of time. Motion and the spacetime fabric must be interconnected. What happens?

The start point of the spacetime fabric is always the observer which is the t = 0 location. This never changes; it always remains the starting point. When motion occurs (time slows down), the observer at t = 0 does not move, but time nodes on the fabric get closer to the observer and the spacing between the time nodes get closer. Overall the fabric is more compressed as compared to the fabric before the motion happens. If the speed of the motion increases (time slows down further), the observer is still fixed at t = 0 and the spacetime fabric gets further pulled towards the observer. Now if you reach the speed of light (time does not move), there is no time and there will be no spacetime fabric. The fabric would then merge into the observer at t = 0. If now, you slow down and come to a complete rest – the spacetime fabric would pop out from the observer, and you will reach the initial state before we started this exercise.

As you increase speed, the fabric starts getting compressed and as you decrease speed, the fabric starts expanding. The interesting question to ask over here is what happens to the objects sitting on top of the spacetime fabric? These are the objects we see out there in the universe. With the increase in the motion speed, the fabric would compress to bring the objects on the fabric closer to the observer, which does not move at t = 0.

It must be understood, the observer does not move, it is fixed at t = 0. So, the motion is not happening to the observer (which is you), but instead the objects on the spacetime fabric are moving closer to the fixed observer. Can you see the illusion which is taking place? We always feel that we as the observer are moving and the objects out there (like trees, houses etc.) are always fixed. This is our daily experiences. We are being fooled. This is exactly like sitting on a stationery train and watching a moving train on the next track. We have an illusion that the train is moving, and the other train is stationery. This is exactly what happens with the motion and the spacetime fabric.    

Please read the following post, for a more detailed explanation of connection between motion and time.

Energy and Spacetime Fabric

Is this image an accurate representation of the spacetime fabric? It does convey the idea of the fabric quite well, but it is not accurate. Why? The fabric is made up of time and the Earth shown is a physical form and is present in the space out there. There is no spacetime fabric out there; it is in the mind only. So,logically it is incorrect for the physical earth to be shown on the time-basedfabric.

Just like space and time are connected. Space is physical and time is subtle and is present in the mind. In the same way mass and energy are also connected. The famous Einstein equation shows this connection E = mc2. Mass is the physical form and energy is the subtle form. Vedanta teaches us that everything subtle is and must be present in the mind only.Energy is subtle and must be part of the mind only. As shown in the post ‘Awareness –The Infinite Energy Source’, there is infinite energy available in the cosmic mind. A part of this energy is used to represent different objects in the universe. Every object has its own unique energy wave function and this wave function is present in the mind. Even quantum physics confirms that every object in this universe has the particle and wave duality. 

This energy wave function of the objects is placed on the spacetime fabric. In the image above, the energy wave function of Earth is placed on the spacetime fabric. In the same way the energy wave function of every object is placed appropriately on the spacetime fabric.

Based on the Einstein theory of general relativity, this energy wave function curves the spacetime fabric. It should be clear that every object with the energy wave function will curve the spacetime fabric. An ant, a stone, human being, trees, planets, suns, galaxies, blackholes, every object will curve the spacetime fabric. The only difference is that objects with greater energy will curve the spacetime much more. The blackhole has the greatest curvature because it packs in the largest amount of energy.

How to understand the curvature of the time based spacetime fabric? How is time affected by the curvature of the fabric? We have seen in the earlier section that the observer is the start point (t =0) of the fabric and the end point is the big bang which is 13.7 billion light years away. Also, this outer edge is expanding 1 light year every year. The size of the spacetime fabric is fixed based on the amount of time which has elapsed. When the spacetime curves or wraps around the object, the size of the time-based fabric does not increase, it remains the same. Then what happens? The time around the objects gets curved and that part stretches out. Let us take an example, the

  • Diameter for sun is 1.5 x 106 km.
  • Speed of light is 3 x 105 km/sec.
  • Time taken by light to cover the diameter = 1.5 x 106 km/3 x 105 km/sec = 5 sec

In the spacetime fabric, the sun will occupy 5 sec of space. These 5 seconds of space on the fabric would curve and wrap around the energy wave form of the sun. The same principle will then apply to every object from an ant to a blackhole.

Mind is a Projector

Yes, mind is a projector. One of the main functions of the mind is to project the world ‘out there’. This does seem drastic and counter intuitive. Our experience tells us that there is a universe with objects. We have been taught that light travels from these objects and hit the eye and an optical image is formed in the retina. This optical signal is transmitted to the brain. Something happens in the brain and we experience the world out there. In this process, there are many questions which have never been answered.

  • How this optical signal is converted to the image we experience?
  • What power within the brain converts this signal to an image?
  • How does the witness view this image and fundamentally who is really witnessing this image?

Science has never explained these issues. We therefore must look for a solution elsewhere. In this respect the teaching of Vedanta is helpful. Vedanta teaches just the opposite; it teaches that there are mental waves or ‘vrittis’ in the individual mind. When these mental waves come in the presence of ‘Atma’ or the Observer (which is our inner core), these mental waves are projected out as the world with objects.

To justify this, in my post, ‘Projection – The Only Truth’, I have given the following 5 different explanations, which supports the fact that we indeed project the external world with all its components. All these explanations are based on science and logic. You must read this post to be fully convinced.

  1. By using Science
  2. By using logic
  3. By using Math’s
  4. By using Quantum Physics
  5. By using Neuroscience

This is very similar to the working of a projector that projects a movie on screen. It is easy to compare this step to an actual digital projector. Without being too technical, there are two major parts to any projector. One is the light source or bulb and the other is the content which must be projected. The mind also has a similar structure:

  • A Bulb of Awareness
  • Content which must be projected

Let us discuss these two parts in more detail

Bulb of Awareness

Awareness is the inner most core of any living being. It is like a bulb shinning within our inner core. If any object, it could be an image, sound, touch or feeling, comes in the presence of this bulb of Awareness, you will be aware of that experience. Here are some examples of awareness we experience daily.

How do we know the tree is green? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know sugar is sweet? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know we have two legs and two hands? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know the weight of the chair is 20 lbs.? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know the smooth touch of silk? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know we are listening to music? Because we are aware of it. 

The common thread to all these questions is Awareness. It would seem Awareness is a prerequisite to observe any object. Without awareness, we would not know any objects which are perceived by the 5 senses organs – eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin. These objects from the sensory organs must encounter Awareness, then only we can observe the object. For an analogy, think of the sun. When there is no light from the sun, you cannot see anything but in the presence of the light everything becomes visible. In the same way when any form comes in the presence of the light of Awareness, we become aware of the object. If there is no light of Awareness, you will perceive nothing, not even the sun.  

Awareness is the most powerful force in the universe. It has the power to connect with a form present in the mind and fill up the object with Awareness. If you analyze Awareness, you will conclude that Awareness is made up of a Subject, Intelligence and Object with the following functions

  1. There must be a Subject, who is Aware of the experience. This subject is the knower of the Awareness
  2. There must be an Object, which must be experienced. This object is the known part of the Awareness
  3. There must be Intelligence by which the subject gets to know the object. This is the knowing part of the Awareness

Knower, Known and Knowing/Intelligence are the 3 powers of Awareness. It must be clear that

  • Awareness = Subject + Object + Intelligence
  • Power of Awareness = Power of Knower + Power of Knowing + Power of Known

Awareness is made of Subject, Intelligence and Object and it has three different powers – Knower, Knowing and Known. It must be understood that the Subject, Intelligence and Object and the three powers are not something outside in the world, but they are within Awareness and make up Awareness. If any one of them is missing, awareness will not work and will be incomplete.

  • If there is an object to be observed but there is no subject, there will be no awareness, as there is no one to see the object.
  • If there is a subject but no object to see, there will no awareness as the subject has no object to observe
  • If there is an object but the subject has no way of knowing what this object is, no awareness will take place. This knowing must have intelligence.

Wherever there is awareness, the Subject, Intelligence and Object must be present with all the three powers.

Our inner core is full, complete and it is stand alone. For Awareness to be full and complete, it must be Self-Aware. Self-Awareness means that the ‘Awareness is aware of Awareness’. Another way to put this is that ‘Self is aware of the Self’. In Self-Awareness, the subject is Awareness and the object is Awareness. Awareness plays the role of subject and object. In other words, both the subject and object are the same. There is one entity only which is non-dual. This complete, self-standing Self Awareness is our inner core. There is no separation between the subject and object – it is one. It is Self-Shining. This Self-Shinning Awareness is the Bulb of Awareness and it is our inner core. It is not dependent upon anything else and it generates its own light of Awareness. And it is the Bulb of Awareness.  

Content Which Must be Projected

We have just seen that the Bulb of Awareness or Self-Awareness is the power source for the projection of content. What about the content which must be projected? Vedanta teaches us that there are individual minds and the total of individual minds can be called the cosmic mind. The cosmic mind is the source for content. A good way to understand this is to compare this with Google Maps. I think most of us use Google Maps. Somewhere in the cloud, there is a complete software or code for Google Maps. This software will show the roads for almost every city and country in the world. If I am at a certain location and you are in another location, Google Maps will show the map for that location only.

Cosmic Map is like Google Maps but more extensive, complex, smarter and dynamic.

  • Cosmic Map covers the entire universe. It is extremely detailed and covers every inch of the universe. There is no place which is left out. It cannot be more complete. Every tree, every mountain, every planet and every galaxy are covered by the cosmic map.
  • Every perspective and view are covered in the cosmic map. If you are flying at 30,000 feet, that view from the window is covered. If you are underwater and look upwards, that view is covered. If you are moving in a train, that view is covered. If you go into space, that view is covered. If you are underground inside a cave, the view is covered. There is nothing which is missing in this cosmic map.
  • The cosmic map is not static. It is dynamic. Everything in this universe ages. Every living and nonliving being in this universe ages. As time flows, every object in the universe grows and changes. Also, every object ages differently and for a different duration. The cosmic map reflects this for every object in this ever-changing universe.
  • The cosmic map is always up to date. If you cut a tree branch or move a stone or if anyone makes any change to any aspect anywhere in the universe, the cosmic map will reflect those changes instantaneously without delay. The cosmic map is never out of date. It is updated continuously and immediately. 
  • Object version in the cosmic map keeps changing. The cosmic map is made up of many objects. This may be easier to explain by a simple example. If there is a tree you are seeing, which is 100 feet away. Light will take 0.1 µs (10-6 seconds) to reach you, so the tree you are seeing is not a ‘now’ version of the tree but a 0.1 µs younger version of the tree. Now, if you move and see the same tree from 600 feet away. What happens? The tree is further away, light will take 0.60 µs to reach you. You are not seeing the same version; you are seeing a different version of the same tree. This will apply to all the objects in the cosmic map. The objects which are closer to you, light will take less time, so you will see a younger version of the object. The objects which are further away, light will take more time to reach you, so you will see an older version of that object. The cosmic map is complex – if you keep moving around, the object version in the cosmic map will keep changing. This aspect is pre-programmed in the cosmic map.

The cosmic mind stores the complete map of the universe. The individual mind covers a subset of the map. This would depend upon what the individual person wants to view. The content within the individual mind is used for the projection.

This content when it comes in presence of the Bulb of Awareness, that content is projected out there as the world with objects.

Classical Physics vs. Quantum Physics

Physics, can be divided into 2 distinct divisions or phases

  • Classical Physics
  • Quantum Physics

Classical physics started with Newton, who made many different discoveries and formulated many different laws, which are relevant even today. Newton’s laws did not focus on atomic level objects but on macro objects we can see around us. Based on these laws, people believed that the universe was a giant machine, where one can easily predict the motion of the planets and the objects therein. This way they knew exactly what was happening in this universe and in some way could even predict all the future movements of celestial bodies. Physicists thought they knew everything in the universe and there was nothing new to discover. 

In the early 20th century, things took a dramatic turn. As physicists started understanding atoms etc., they found none of the classical laws were applicable to level. Classical physics became outdated at the atomic and sub-atomic levels. To understand and explain the happenings in the realm of the sub-atomic, quantum physics was born.

Things in the sub-atomic level, behave in unpredictable ways. Quantum physics is trying its best to provide a proper explanation which is rooted in science and supported by experiments.  Sometimes, a particle is a ‘wave’ and at some other times it is a ‘particle’. This discovery marked the starting point of quantum physics. Quantum physics has explored this contradiction over the past century. Many questions have been successfully answered, but with every answer new question come up. And so, the search for answers doesn’t seem to end. 

In many ways quantum physics is like Vedanta. Vedanta teaches us that the mind is made of waves or ‘vrittis’ and these ‘mind waves’ become the objects which we see around us in this physical universe. Are the ‘waves’ described by quantum physics the same as the ‘waves’ in the mind? I strongly believe both are the same and this may be the common ground between quantum physics and Vedanta.

What is Quantum Physics – A Brief Overview?

We’ll give a quick overview of quantum physics by highlighting some of the key developments that are relevant to this article.

Light is a Wave:

In 1805, Thomas Young demonstrated that Light was a wave. He used the famous double slit experiment. There was a light source and in front of it there was barrier and this barrier had two slits. On the other side of the barrier was a photographic plate to study the light’s propagation through the slits. The result on the photographic plate clearly showed that light

was not a particle but a wave? If it was a particle, there would be only 2 bands on the plate, but the plate showed multiple bands, proving that the light was a wave which passed through the two slits and then combined to from all the different bands. Watch the following video in YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfPeprQ7oGc

Light is a Particle

In 1905 Einstein published a paper on ‘Photoelectric Effect’ phenomenon, which showed that the light is a particle. In 1921, Einstein got a Nobel Prize for this discovery. It is surprising that he got the Nobel Prize for this discovery and not for the ‘Theory of Relativity’, for which he is better known. In this experiment, you shine light (which is a wave) on a photoconductive metal and you get light reflected on the other side. On studying or observing this reflected light, Einstein found that the reflected light was not a wave, but it was made up of packets of energy. Each packet is a unit of fixed energy and this packet is known as a photon and has all the characteristics of a particle. 

Matter is both Wave and Particle

So, light exhibits properties both of a ‘wave’ and of a ‘particle’. In 1923, de Broglie, a French doctoral student made a bold assertion that not only light, but all matter must have both ‘wave’ and ‘particle’ properties. Here matter means matter, including, you, me, planets, cars, in fact any living or nonliving object in this universe. The tree in front of you is a particle and using the de Broglie formula; you can also calculate the wavelength of the tree based on its energy content. In 1927, the de Broglie hypothesis was proven experimentally – thus, all matter is both a wave and a particle. This is amazing, but people need to grasp that everything in this universe has both a ‘particle and ‘wave’ property. In 1929, de Broglie was awarded the Nobel Prize for his theory. He was the only one to ever receive a Nobel Prize based on his doctoral thesis.

We know ‘particle’ resides in the world out there (we see it everywhere), but where does the ‘wave’ reside? This is the million-dollar question which is still to be answered. What is the connection between the wave part and the particle part of matter?

Schrodinger’s Wave Function

Like Newton’s law of motion is the heart of the classical physics, Schrodinger’s wave function is the heart of quantum physics.  To understand the ‘wave’ part of the de Broglie theory, Schrodinger formulated a complex equation for the wave function. Schrodinger’s equation represents a physical system and this physical system always consists of:  

  • Observed system – The observed system is a wave function, and this wave function is the wave component of the wave/matter duality as postulated by de Broglie.
  • Observing system – When this observing system interacts with the observed system at any given time, the wave function of the observed system collapses to become a particle.

In other words, when the wave function comes in the presence of the observing system, the wave function collapses and become a particle. It would seem an observing system is necessary for the wave function to collapse to become a particle. Quantum physics never explains who and what is the observing system, which has the power to collapse a wavefunction and create a particle.

This is exactly what is taught by Vedanta. This connection between wave and particle is at the heart of Vedanta. Vedanta teaches us that there are 3 types of universes:

  1. Seed Universe
  2. Subtle Universe made up of mental waves or ‘Vrittis’
  3. Gross Universe – The world we see out there

Every object in the universe needs a ‘seed’. For a plant or a tree to grow, there must be a seed. In the same way this universe and all the objects therein must have a ‘seed’. Under the right conditions this seed germinates to become the subtle universe. The subtle universe is made up of mental waves or ‘vrittis’. Each object in this universe has a unique waveform.

If you think about it, the mental waveform taught by Vedanta is the same wave function which is explained by de Broglie and Schrodinger. When this mental waveform comes in the presence of the observing system which is our Atma or inner core, this waveform collapses to become the gross universe out there. This is exactly like the Schrodinger wave function. The observing system in Schrodinger wave function is nothing but Atma. Only Atma has the power and capacity to collapse any mental wave function. It is just impossible for matter out there to collapse any wave function.

In my article ‘Vedanta and Quantum Physics’, I have given a detailed explanation to show that the wave function mentioned in quantum physics is same as the mental waves or ‘vrittis’ which is taught by Vedanta.

http://vedantaandscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Quantum-Physics-and-Vednata-Final.pdf

Classical Physics vs. Quantum Physics

Science tells us that the laws which operate in the classical world do not work in the quantum world and laws which operate in the quantum world do not work in the classical world. From this statement, it would seem both are functioning in different worlds. Why does this happen? What is the difference between these two worlds? We have just seen that there is a fully functioning subtle universe and a fully functioning gross universe. The subtle universe is made up of ‘vrittis’ or waveforms which is operating within the individual mind and the cosmic mind. The gross universe is the universe which is made of objects out there.

Since the focus of quantum physics is on understanding the wave/particle duality. This would mean that the focus of quantum physics is on the subtle universe, while the focus of classical physics is on the gross universe. We know that the gross world is made up of gross objects only and laws of classical physics apply to this realm. The subtle universe is made up of mental waves and the laws of quantum physics apply to this realm. Therefore, the focus of quantum physics is on mental waves while the focus of classical physics is gross objects.

Mental waves and gross objects are very different. By studying the gross objects, there is no way classical physics can learn about mental waves. It is for this reason that the laws of quantum physics do not apply to the gross/physical world, only the classical laws will work in the physical world. The same reasoning will apply to the subtle universe; the classical laws will not be suitable, only the quantum laws will work in the subtle universe.

To conclude classical physics is concerned with the physical universe out there, while quantum physics is concerned with the subtle universe which is functioning within are minds. They operate in two mutually exclusive realms.

Are We Looking at the Same Objects?

Imagine each one of us, are looking at the same scene, maybe a group of trees. If so, are we looking at the same trees? If we are looking at the same scene, I am sure most people will answer, yes; we are looking at the same trees. My answer is a qualified ‘yes’. We may be looking at the same trees, but each one of us is looking at a different version of the trees. In other words, we are not looking at ‘exactly’ the same trees but looking at different versions of the same trees.

How to understand this? The problem is the way we look at the vast and intractable space. We are so used to see space in terms of distance. This tree is 100 feet away, that house is 1 mile away, that plane is flying at 30,000 feet. There is nothing wrong with this, but this particular vision hides the complexities of the space out there. The interesting truths about space get hidden with this perspective.

Another way to look at space is in terms of time. Measure distance by the amount of time light takes to reach us from different objects. Einstein taught us that space and time are the same things, and he coined the term spacetime. This would mean we can measure distance in space both in miles/km and by time. Things become interesting and the inner complexity of the universe becomes evident when you look at the universe in terms of time. To get the ball rolling, let us look at some trees in terms of time taken by light to reach us from the trees. We know that light travels at 186,000 miles/sec. For an instance, suppose you are standing at Location A and your friend is standing at Location B, and you are looking at a group of trees located and rooted at different distances. Even though the trees are not very far, a single beam of light will take some time to reach us. See below the results of the trees in terms of distance and time taken by light to reach us.

  Location A Location B
  Distance Time Distance Time
Tree 1 100 ft 0.10 µs 600 ft  0.60 µs
Tree 2 300 ft  0.30 µs 800 ft  0.80 µs
Tree 3 500 ft  0.50 µs 1000 ft  1.0 µs
Tree 4 1000 ft  1.0 µs 1500 ft  1.5 µs

Note: µs = microseconds = 10-6 seconds

You are standing at Location A and tree 1 is 100 feet away. Based on the speed of light, it will take approximately 0.1 µs to reach you from the point where the tree is located. Since light has taken some time to reach you, the version of the tree you will see is not the current version, but a dated version of the tree. We will see the current version of the tree, only if the distance between the tree and us is zero and when light will take zero seconds to reach us. I like to call this the ‘now’ tree. It is the current version of the tree. The simple explanation is that, If light must travel any distance (however small), you will never see the current version or the ‘now’ version of the tree. It is always the older and the dated version of the tree.  

Based on this, for tree 1, which is 100 feet away, you will see the (now- 0.1 µs) version of the tree. This is because light takes 0.1 µs to reach us, so what we see is not the ‘now’ version but a (now – 0.1 µs) version of the tree. Light from Tree 3 at 500 feet will take 0.5 µs to reach us, so the version of the tree you see the (now – 0.5 µs) version of the tree. This logic will apply to all the objects in the universe.

Now, suppose your friend is standing at Location B, which is 500 feet behind you and for him Tree 1 is 600 feet away. Since your friend is standing 600 feet away, light will take 0.60 µs to reach him. This would mean your friend will see the (now – 0.6 µs) version of the same tree. The version of his tree is different from the one that you are seeing. You at 100 feet away see the (now – 0.1 µs) version of the tree and your friend at 600 feet, will see (now – 0.6 µs) version of the tree. Since light travels a longer time to reach your friend from the same tree, he will see a different version of the same tree.

This may sound strange, but it is true that if we are not standing at exactly the same distance from the tree, we will see a different version of the same tree. It is this same logic of a changed and altered version that applies to all objects in the universe.

You may argue, µs = microseconds = 10-6 seconds is a very small number, and a human being cannot discern these small-time differences. This is very true and that is why there is no confusion between the different versions of the same objects. We all think we are seeing the same version of the tree. Human mind has a limited capacity to distinguish between these minor changes. If the human mind cannot distinguish between these minor changes, that does not mean that mother nature is also limited. Based on the Plank constant, the smallest possible time slot in nature is 10-44 seconds. This is a very small number, and nature is constructed based on the time increments of 10-44 seconds. The entire space and the objects in and around it are constructed based on this time increments. If you compare 10-6 seconds with 10-44 seconds, 10-6 seconds seems like eternity. This is the discerning capacity of nature.

The point being made is that the tree you see at 100 feet is the (now- 0.1 µs) version of the tree and your friend sees the (now- 0.6 µs) version of the same tree at 600 feet. If each one of you might have taken a photo of the tree, you might not have noticed any difference. This is expected because the distances are not much. The human mind cannot distinguish these minor changes, but nature definitely provides different versions of the same tree.

If the minor version changes for small distances is difficult to accept, let us conduct a thought experiment, where the object distances are very large, and the time taken for light to reach us is significant. Let us assume that human beings are living all over the universe. Even the far far away planets are inhabited with people. Let us say that at this very moment 4 people are looking at the sun. Person 1 is stationed on Earth. Person 2 is stationed at Mars. Person 3 is in a planet which is 1 million light years away. Person 4 is living in a planet which is 4 billion light years away. At this ‘now’ moment, all of them are looking at the sun. What will each person see?

  • Person 1 will see the (now – 8 min) version of the sun, because a single ray of light takes 8 min to reach the person 1 in Earth.
  • Person 2 is on Mars and light takes 13 minutes to reach Mars. This person will see the (now- 13 minutes) version of the sun. It may not be noticeable, but the sun in Mars will look 5 minutes younger as compared to what Person 1 sees on Earth.
  • Person 3 who is 1 million light years away, will see the (now- 1 million years) version of the sun. This is because it has taken light 1 million years to reach the Person 3.
  • Person 4 who is 4 billion light years away will see the (now- 4 billion years) version of the sun. We know that the sun is about 4.5 billion years old. So right now, Person 4 will see the version of the sun which was 4 billion years ago. This person actually sees the infant version of the sun, which is totally different from the sun person 1 is seeing from the Earth or Mars.

All the 4 people are looking at the sun right ‘now’, but they are seeing different versions of the sun. Not only the sun, but this same explanation applies to every object in the universe. You maybe a few millimeters away or light years away, each one of us will see a different version of the same object.

Some more intriguing complexity of the world yet remains unsolved.  You are standing 600 feet from Tree 1. We have seen at this distance; you will see the (now- 0.6 µs) version of the tree. Now you start walking towards the tree. What happens? As you walk, the tree gets closer to you. This means the beam of light will take less time to reach you and therefore, you will see a different version of the same tree. With every step you take, you will see a different version of the tree. It is indeed an amazing stuff, but extremely true. When you reach 100 feet from the tree, you will see the (now- 0.1 µs) version of the tree. What is happening? The tree looks so fixed and stationery, how is possible the tree is changing its version on a continuous basis. It would almost seem that the current version is being physically uprooted, and it is being replaced by a newer version of the tree. It is definitely not our experience.

How to understand this reality? We can see that the universe out there looks very different when space is looked with the eyes of ‘time’ and not distances. How to understand that you see a version of the tree; your friend sees a different version of the same tree. A person 4 billion light years away will see the infant version of the sun, while you on Earth will see (now- 8 min) version of the sun. How to comprehend that when you walk, run or drive in a car, the version of the tree and every object out there keeps changing its version on a continuous basis.

This is intriguing because this perspective is never discussed. So what is the basis If you want a simple answer – it is called Projection. It means each one of us project our own universe out there. Our mind projects the universe and that is what we see. I am projecting a version of the tree along with other objects you are also projecting your own version of the tree depending upon the distance at which the tree is located with respect to you. This way each one of us is projecting their own version of the tree along with other objects. There is no other way which will explain why you see a different version of the tree as compared with others. Also, if you are moving at any speed, how will version of the objects keep changing. The entire phenomenon is only possible because each one of us is projecting the universe out there.

I have given a detailed explanation why ‘Projection is the Only Truth’ and ‘How the Projection Really works’ in the following article at my website.

http://vedantaandscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/The-Science-Behind-the-Projection-of-the-Universe-Final.pdf

Vedanta teaches us that there is a fully functioning subtle universe made up of waveforms which is operating in the cosmic mind and a subset of this subtle universe is operating within an individual mind. Also, each object in the universe has a gross form and a subtle form. The subtle form is made up of waveforms. Each object has its own and unique waveform. These object waveforms make up the subtle universe. In cosmic mind and individual minds, there is also a Time waveform. This waveform is the source for Time. This Time waveform superimposes with the object waveform to from a combined Time-Object waveform. This Time-Object waveform is powerful, and it maintains the full historical timeline record of the object, right from its birth to the ‘now’ moments. All the versions of the objects are available or stored in the combined Time-Object waveform. For example, if Tree 1 is 70 years old, the combined Time- Tree 1 waveform will have the consummate record of all the versions of the tree from its birth to the current moment. This applies to every object in the universe.

When you are seeing Tree 1, the (now- 0.1 µs) version of the Time-Tree 1 waveform will be available in your mind. Your mind will then project this tree at 100 feet.  When your friend sees Tree 1, the (now- 0.6 µs) version of the Time-Tree 1 waveform will be available in his mind. Your friend’s mind will project this tree at 600 feet, and therefore projection varies from one individual mind to another.  

Next time you look at space, please look at it through the lens of time. You will get a different perspective of the world out there. If you do that regularly, then you will understand the actual construction of the universe. You will realize that objects are placed at different distances because of the time light takes to reach us. If you think deeply about this, you will be convinced that your mind is projecting the different version of the objects out there.

Brahman and Ishvara

Many times, Brahman and Ishvara are used interchangeably. But, are they the same?  Yes, the underlying nature of Brahman and Ishvara is the same, but how they function and operate is different. Awareness, the underlying reality of everything in the universe is the common nature between Brahman and Ishvara. The difference between Brahman and Ishvara is summed up by Vedanta as follows:

Nirguna Brahman: Nirguna Brahman means Brahman without qualities or attributes.

Saguna Brahman = Ishvara: Saguna Brahman or Ishvara means Brahman with qualities and attributes.

In this article, we will show the connection between Brahman and Ishvara. We will try and understand what is meant by Awareness and how this is the core nature of Brahman and Ishvara. We will also see how Brahman with no attributes becomes Ishvara with attributes and qualities. We will also try and understand what are the qualities and attributes of Ishvara.

1. Brahman – The Non-Dual Self Awareness

The first question to start the discussion is – what is Awareness? What is Self-Awareness? Awareness is the innermost core of any living being. It is like an Awareness bulb shining within our inner core. If any object, it could be an image, sound, touch or feeling, comes in the presence of this bulb of Awareness, you will be aware of that experience. Here are some examples of awareness that we experience daily.

How do we know the tree is green? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know sugar is sweet? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know we have two legs and two hands? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know the weight of the chair is 20 lbs.? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know the smooth touch of silk? Because we are aware of it. 

How do we know we are listening to music? Because we are aware of it. 

The common thread to all these questions is Awareness. It would seem Awareness is a prerequisite to observe any kind of object. Without awareness, we would not know any objects which are perceived by the 5 senses organs – eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. These objects from the sensory organs must encounter Awareness, and then only we can observe the object. For an analogy, let us think of the sun. If there is no light emanating from the sun, the entire world will be dark; anything and everything become visible only when there is light. In the same way, when any form encounters the light of Awareness, we become aware of the object. If there is no light of Awareness, you will perceive nothing, not even the sun. 

Awareness is the most powerful force in the universe. It has the power to connect with a form present in the mind and fill up the object with Awareness. If you analyze Awareness, you will conclude that Awareness is made up of a Subject, Intelligence, and an Object with the following functions

  1. There must be a Subject, who is Aware of the experience. This subject is the ‘knower’ of the Awareness
  2. There must be an Object, which must be experienced. This object is the ‘known’ part of the Awareness
  3. There must be Intelligence by which the subject gets to know the object. This is the ‘knowing’ part of the Awareness

Knower, Known and Knowing/Intelligence are the 3 powers of Awareness. It must be clear that

  • Awareness = Subject + Object + Intelligence
  • Power of Awareness = Power of Knower + Power of Knowing + Power of Known

Awareness is made of Subject, Intelligence, and Object and it has three different powers – Knower, Knowing and Known. It must be understood that the Subject, Intelligence, and Object and the three powers are not something outside in the world, but they are within Awareness and they only make up Awareness. If any one of them is missing, awareness will not work and will be incomplete.

  • If there is an object to be observed but there is no subject, there will be no awareness, as there is no one to see the object.
  • If there is a subject but no object to see, there will no awareness as the subject has no object to observe
  • If there is an object but the subject has no way of knowing what this object is, no awareness will take place. This ‘knowing’ must have intelligence.

Wherever there is awareness, the Subject, Intelligence and Object must be present with all the three powers.

What is Self-Awareness? Our inner core is full, complete and it is stand alone. For Awareness to be full and complete, it must be Self-Aware. Self-Awareness means that the ‘Awareness is aware of Awareness’. Another way to put this is that ‘Self is aware of the Self’. It is like saying ‘I am aware of the tree’. Here ‘I am’ can be referred as the subject and the tree is the object. In Self-Awareness, the subject is Awareness and the object is Awareness. Awareness plays the role of subject and object. In other words, both the subject and object are the same. There is one entity only which is non-dual. This complete, self-standing Self Awareness is our inner core. There is no separation between the subject and object – it is one and homogenous. It is Self-Shining. This Self-shining Awareness is the Bulb of Awareness and it is our inner core. It is not dependent upon anything else and it generates its own light of Awareness. And it is the Bulb of Awareness.  

Self-Awareness is non-dual, homogenous and it has many inherent characteristics.

  • It is Formless
  • It is Unchanging
  • It has Infinite Energy source
  • It is Unborn
  • It has the 3 powers of Awareness – the power of knower, knowing and known

Brahman is the name given to this inner core of Self-Awareness. This inner core is present in every living being. So, it is present within you, me and within everyone. This Self-Awareness just shines like of bulb of Awareness, and it does not do anything, except radiating Awareness. Nothing affects Self-Awareness, it is always at peace. Peace is its inherent nature. Because Self-Awareness does not anything, all the qualities and attributes mentioned are lying dormant within Self-Awareness.

2. Ishvara – The Reflected Awareness

If our nature and inner core is Self-Awareness, why don’t we know it, why don’t we feel it? The simple answer is that we are ignorant of our inner core. Ignorance has the power to cover Self-Awareness. When we forget, who we really are, ignorance pops up and covers our inner core. Ignorance is like a veil covering Awareness.

By this time, it has become evident that Self-Awareness does not do anything, it just keeps shining. When this Self-Awareness is covered by ignorance, this Self-Awareness gets reflected in the ignorance. Ignorance is like a mirror in which reflection takes place. What you get then is the Reflected Awareness. When the sun is reflected in a mirror, you still have the sun and you also have a reflected sun. This is exactly what happens here.  You have Brahman, the non-dual Self-Awareness and the Reflected Awareness. This Reflected Awareness is called Ishvara.

  • It is quite strange to know that our ignorance is the cause of Ishvara, which is Reflected Awareness. If there was no ignorance, there would be no reflected Awareness, and then there would be no Ishvara also. If there was no ignorance, the only thing present would be Brahman, the self-shining Self-Awareness. So,our ignorance is the cause of Ishvara.
  • Even if there is Reflected Awareness, nothing happens to the non-dual Self Awareness or Brahman. It will continue to shine, irrespective if there is ignorance or there is no ignorance. This is like the sun which will shine even if it is cloudy, or it is the night. Nothing can stop the sun from shining. Similarly, Self-Awareness will continue to shine if there is ignorance or ignorance.
  • It must be understood that in the presence of ignorance, there is no effect on Reflected Awareness. Reflected Awareness remains pure and unaffected. This does seem counterintuitive.  It would be reasonable to assume that ignorance will rub off some of its ignorance on the reflected Awareness or Ishvara. Then again, we know Ishvara is pure, limitless and just cannot have any ignorance.  How to understand this? The classic example given is if you pour water in a red bottle. The water will appear to be red. It seems the redness of the bottle has affected the water. Our ignorance can lead to this conclusion. If you have proper knowledge you will know that the water in the bottle is always colorless and the red color of the bottle has no effect on the water. It is with this logic, we can understand that Ignorance has no effect on the Reflected Awareness. Reflected Awareness or Ishvara is pure and limitless.
  • Ignorance has two sides, an input and output side. The Reflected Awareness appears on the input side of ignorance. We will discuss the output side of ignorance in some other article.  

We have seen that Self-Awareness is nondual, in which ‘Self’ is both the subject and object. Unfortunately, because of our ignorance, we have forgotten that our inner core is nondual, and we are both the subject and the object. Since we no longer know that we are both the subject and the object, it simply means that there is a separation of the subject being ‘in here’ and the object being ‘out there’. Ignorance converts the non-duality into the duality of the subject in here and the object out there. Ignorance has that power.

In the non-dual Self Awareness, the power behind the subject is the Power of the Knower and the power behind of object is the Power of the Known. In non-duality, the subject and object are the same. Therefore, logically the power of the knower is the same as the power of known. There are homogenous with no separation. This is what happens in non-dual Self Awareness or Brahman. We have just seen that because of ignorance, the subject and object separate creating duality. With this separation, even the power of the knower and the power of known get separated. They are no longer one entity, but the power of the knower and the power of the known appear as two separate entities in Reflected Awareness. Even the 3rd power of Knowing is available in the Reflected Awareness. Each of these 3 powers of Awareness is very much active in Ishvara.

Vedanta teaches us that Maya Shakti is the power or force behind creation and intelligence of the universe. As has already become evident in the last few parts of the discussion, that power of known, the power of knowing and the power of known are now available in the Reflected Awareness. These 3 powers are nothing, but the Maya Shakti as mentioned in Vedanta.

Maya Shakti = Power of Knower + Power of Knowing + Power of Known

This Maya Shakti is within the Reflected Awareness and Ishvara wields this Maya Shakti to operate and control this universe. Maya Shakti is the quality and attribute of Ishvara.

Ishvara = Reflected Awareness + Maya Shakti.

Let us discuss each of the 3 powers of Ishvara to understand their nature and function.

1. Power of Knowing or Intelligence

The knowing or intelligence component of Awareness is extremely powerful, in fact language and words may not be enough to describe its awesome power. Here are some examples that indicate its strength and power.

Example 1: I am seeing a tree. A more Vedantic way to put it will be ‘I am the seer seeing a tree’

This is a simple experience we have every moment, but it shows the extraordinary power of Awareness. Let us breakup this experience into the different components of Awareness

Ego = I am

Subject = Seer

Object = Tree

Intelligence = Seeing is the power of Awareness, which makes it possible for ‘I’ to know the tree. Without the power of Seeing, none of us will see any object. Someone may argue that the eye provides this power. The eye does nothing other than converting the image into an optical signal, and bringing the signal to the mind. What is the ability that decodes this optical signal into the understanding that this object is a tree? It is power of the Seeing which is within Awareness which allows us to know that there is a tree. This intelligence in Awareness knows that the optical signal is a tree.

Awareness = Seer + Seeing + Seen

Example 2: You are reading a book or ‘You are the reader reading a book’

This power of intelligence is within Awareness and is available to everyone. Let us decode the experience of reading.

Ego = You

Subject = Reader

Object = Book

Intelligence = Reading is a power within Awareness which allows the Subject or Reader to connect with the contents of the book. It is within Awareness because you are aware that you are reading – first, to know the words and sentences, and then to know what is being read. We are so used to reading that we do not think of this ability as anything special. If there was no power of reading within Awareness, there would be no way you could read anything. With this power of “reading” we are aware that we are reading, and this awareness completes the reading experience.

Awareness = Reader + Reading + Read

Example 3: You are visiting a friend or ‘You are the visitor visiting a friend’

Subject = Visitor

Object = Friend

Intelligence = you are aware that you are visiting a friend. This power of knowing that you are visiting is part of the Intelligence within Awareness, and it is also about knowing that this person is a friend. If you did not have this power within you, you will never know this person is your friend, and you have specifically made an effort to visit him.  

Awareness = Visitor + Visiting + Visited

We can continue to give any number of examples to highlight the power of Awareness.  We can take any verb in the English language and add the ‘ing’ to this verb. This word when connected with a Subject and Object will have the power of creating a awareful experience within the mind. Some more examples:

Awareness = Eater + Eating + Eaten
Awareness = Sleeper + Sleeping + Slept
Awareness = Fighter + Fighting + Fought (an Object)
Awareness = Player + Playing + Played (an Object)
Awareness = Learner + Learning + Learned

The intelligence within Awareness has an unlimited range of power, it is impossible to comprehend. We can comprehend only what experiences our mind can handle.

Awareness is not limited by the capacity of our mind. It is much more, and this Awareness has an infinite amount of intelligence, it has the infinite amount of knowledge about everything that is possible. What is amazing, this unlimited intelligence, this pure intelligence, this Awareness is available within everyone’s mind.

2. Power of the Knower or the Subject

In the earlier section, we saw the power of knowing, the intelligence of knowing.  There must be a Knower to see an object and perceive what it looks like.  This is done by the Subject within Awareness. The Subject is the Knower of the experience. This Subject is not only the Knower of seeing, but is also the knower of hearing, the knower of reading, knower of sleeping, etc.

  • When it is the knower of seeing, the Subject is a Seer
  • When it is the knower of hearing, the Subject is a Hearer
  • When it is the knower of reading, the Subject is a Reader
  • When it is the knower of running, the Subject is a Runner

There is only one Subject, and it is the Knower of so many things. In fact, it is the Knower of everything. All this fall within the category of Awareness.

Our minds are limited and therefore the power and range of the Knower is limited. Awareness is beyond the mind and this Subject within Awareness is Knower of everything that is possible. There is nothing that Awareness does not know.

Where ever there is Awareness, there must be a Subject. This Subject is the Knower and this Knower has the power of knowing everything that is possible. We should never confuse this Subject with Ego. This Subject is part of Awareness and this Subject does NOT have an ego. If I say ‘I am the Knower’ or ‘I am the Subject’, the ‘I am’ is the Ego. The Knower and the Subject is not part of the Ego, buts it is part of Awareness. In Awareness there is no attachment and no ego, it is simply aware. 

3.Power of Known or Objects

The Object component of Awareness is also extremely powerful, and it can take any form that we experience in the mind.

If you see a round circle, then awareness cannot take shape of a square. If it does not, you will never experience the round circle. Awareness must also be a round circle with the same exact dimensions. If you see a tree, then awareness must also take the shape of the tree. This tree must be filled up with the Awareness. If the tree is half-filled with awareness or the awareness does not have the same shape as the tree, you will not be aware of the tree.

If you want to observe any object with form,

  1. The form must be filled in with Awareness and nothing but Awareness. If the form does not have Awareness, then the observer or subject will not be able to experience the object with that form.
  2. The Awareness must take the exact shape of the form.  

Awareness by itself is formless, but it has the potential to take any form. If you look into a powerful microscope, awareness can take the shape of a molecule or if you look at the universe through a telescope, awareness can take shape of the stars and galaxies. Big or small, awareness can take the shape of anything. Awareness has the potential to take any form.

Awareness is this powerful force in our mind, which can take up any shape or form. Another way to put it:  all possible ‘potential forms’ are available within Awareness. They are inherently present in Awareness, and they take a required form when you experience that form in your mind. How many different ‘potential forms’ are present in Awareness?  Countless, infinite!!  

Ishvara or the Reflected Awareness has the power of knower, the power of knowing and the power of known. It wields these powers to operate and controls the universe out there.

Conclusion

Brahman is the self-shinning non dual Self-Awareness. Because of our ignorance, Brahman gets reflected in ignorance as Reflected Awareness. This Reflected Awareness is Ishvara. Maya Shakti is lying dormant in Brahman and because of our ignorance, this Maya Shakti is activated and this shakti is wielded by Ishvara to create, manage and control the universe.

Where is the Sun ‘Now’?

If I ask you this question – where is the Sun ‘Now’? Then you may look at me strangely and then point to the sun in the sky. The next question therefore becomes quite inevitable-are you sure? We know light takes 8 minutes to reach us from the sun, so the sun we are seeing is a (now – 8 min) sun. It is not a ‘now’ sun. It just cannot be the ‘now’ sun, because for the finite time taken by the light to reach us. It is a ‘dated’ sun and not a ‘now’ sun. You cannot deny this logic. So, I repeat the question– where is the sun ‘now’? The sun cannot be in the current location, because in 8 minutes the sun has moved from its current location. The (now – 8 min) sun is at the current location, but the ‘now’ sun must be somewhere 8 minutes away. But where do we locate the sun ‘now’?

It may be easier to understand this for the sun, because in 8 minutes the sun could not have moved much. It may be somewhere near its current location. What about the faraway stars? Some of the stars seen through the powerful telescopes are more than 1 billion light years away. One light year is the distance that light travels in one year. So, these stars are very far away. Since light has taken 1 billion year to reach us, the star we are watching is the (now – 1 billion year) star. At this location we do not see the ‘now’ star, but we see the (now – 1 billion year) star. Once again, the same question – where is that star right ‘now’. It is just impossible to answer this question. It is so, because, after the passage of one billion year, this star could be anywhere. It may not even exist ‘now’; it could have collided with a meteoroid. It is true; no one knows where that star is right ‘now’. All this may sound strange, but it is a fact that nobody knows where any of these stars out there are right ‘now’.

Science has a knack of confusing us. When science discovers a new planet, say 5 million light years, scientists and researchers announce this new planet. In this announcement, they give an impression that the new planet is at that location right ‘now’. It is incorrect. It is the location of the (now – 5million years) planet. Right ‘now’, nobody knows where the planet is. 5 million years have passed for the planet. You cannot be sure if the planet even exists.

So, I repeat the same question – where is the sun right ‘now’, where is this star which is 5 billion light years away or the planet which is 5 million light years away? Where are any of the objects right ‘now’?

Read on, you will be surprised by the answer!

The Sun Must be at the ‘Now’ Location

The ‘now’ sun must be at the ‘now’ location, but where is this ‘now’ location? Is there a ‘now’ location. Yes, there is a ‘now’ location in which there is no place for the (now – 8 min) sun or the (now – 5 billion years) star or the (now – 5 million years) planet. Everything in this location only has ‘now’ objects. So, how to discover and understand this location?

It is not difficult. Let us analyze a typical scene we see every day. Light takes 8 min from the sun, so we see the (now- 8min) sun. Light takes 3 seconds from moon, so we see the (now-3sec) moon. Light takes 10-3sec from a plane flying at 30,000 feet, so the plane we see is the (now – 10-3 sec) plane. Light from the tree outside the window takes 10-6 sec, so the tree we see is the (now-10-6 sec) tree. The light from the laptop takes 10-9 seconds, so the laptop I see is the (now – 10-9 sec) laptop. 

Do you see any trend in the scene described above? The objects which are nearer to us are closer to the ‘now’ version, than the objects which are far away. So, as we move inward, there must be a location which is (now – 0 sec). At this location, the ray of light will take 0 seconds to reach us and that location must be the ‘now’ location. So where is that location? The only logical location must be within us. Vedanta teaches us that the Observer within us is the location for the ‘now’ objects. At this Observer location, not only the sun, the plane, the trees or the stars, but all the objects in the universe are within us as the ‘now’ objects. At this location, only the ‘now’ objects exist.

Sun and ‘Now’ Sun

To support the above finding, let us look at this from a different angle. Let us do a thought experiment for the sun. At its current location light takes 8 min to reach us, so we see the (now-8min) version of the sun. If for whatever reason, the sun could move and it we see a (now-4min) version of the sun. What does this mean? It means that light will take 4 minutes to reach us and the sun will be located at halfway mark, which will be nearer to us. If the sun moves even closer and we see the (now – 10-3 sec) version, it would mean that the sun is only 30,000 feet away. As the sun comes closer to us, the only place where we can find the (now – 0sec) sun is within this. This also shows that the ‘now’ sun must be within us. It is in the Observer within us. This logic and reasoning apply not only to the sun, but to every object in the universe.

Wow, what a conclusion – all the ‘now’ objects in this universe are within us. The Observer or Sakshi within us is the location for these ‘now’ objects. There is the ‘now’ universe within us. What is more interesting is that there is a ‘now’ universe within you, there is a ‘now’ universe within me and in the same way, there is ‘now’ universe within every living being. In this ‘now’ universe there are only the ‘now’ objects. It is quite difficult to imagine the full universe within the Observer. It is impossible to have the physical objects within us. So, what is the format of these ‘now’ objects? Vedanta teaches us that these ‘now’ objects are made up of mental waves or ‘vrittis’. Each object has its unique mental wave.

Projection of the Sun

We just concluded that the ‘now’ location is the Observer within us. The Observer has two functions

  • perceive all the objects out there
  • it is the repository for all the ‘now’ objects.

How does the ‘now’ sun, which is a mental wave in the Observer become the (now-8min) physical sun out there? The simple answer is that the sun and all the objects in the universe are projected by our mind. It is like the projection of the movie in a theatre. We project the (now-8min) sun and place it 8 min away in space. In the article ‘The Science Behind the Projection of the Universe’, there is a detailed explanation about how the projection works. Here we will give a quick summary. The ‘now’ sun combines with the time waveform in our mind, and we get a combined (sun + time) mental waveform. When the ‘now’ sun waveform combines with the time waveform, magic happens. Since the time waveform is involved, the combined waveform has the complete linear history of the sun from the day it was born to the ‘now’ moment. Each time the moment of the sun is available in the combined (sun + time) waveform. Not a single time moment is missing. For us, the sun is 8 minutes away, so our mind chooses the (now-8min) version of the sun and projects it out there. If someone was living in Mars, their mind would choose the (now – 13 min) version of the sun. Light from the sun takes 13 minutes to reach Mars. They see a different version of the sun.  In the same way, if someone from the planet 5 million light years away sees the sun through a telescope, they will project a sun which is (now – 5 million years) old.

In the same way, each ‘now’ object will combine with the time waveform. Depending upon the distance of the object from us, the appropriate version of the object will be projected by the mind.

Conclusion

The sun we see as a part of the Milky Way is the (now-8min) version of the sun. The ‘now’ sun is within us and part of the Observer or Sakshi. Not only the sun, but all the ‘now’ objects in the universe are present within each one of us as mental waveforms.