All posts by mayajk

SatChitAnanda vs. Self Awareness

Vedanta teaches us that our true self is SatChitAnanda. Let us now discuss what we mean by ‘Sat Chit Ananda’.

Sat: Sat means ‘Real’. According to Vedanta, for anything to be Sat, it must exist and be present in all the 3 tenses – past, present and future. If you investigate nature, you will not find anything which is Sat.

  • This universe was born 13.7 billion years ago and therefore it did not exist before that. So, it cannot be Sat, also we know if anything is born it must die. So, Sat must be unborn and anything which is unborn must be uncreated (to make it existent, forever).
  • Everything which is born must have a cause. You were born because of your parents and they were born because of their parents. Since Sat is unborn it is also uncaused. No cause created it, it was and it will always be present.
  • If anything changes in anyway small, e.g. (atoms have been displaced) or big, e.g. (planetary positions are different), it is not the same as what it was before. Therefore, it cannot be Sat, because Sat is unchanging.

Atma or ‘I” or Self is Sat and it is uncreated, uncaused and unchanging.

Chit: Chit means ‘Awareness’. Many books will also translate this as Consciousness but I feel this is not very accurate. Awareness is a better way to understand this. Shortly, we shall discuss Awareness in more detail.

Ananda: Your essential nature is Ananda or Bliss. This term can be confusing because we do get momentary bliss in our day to day lives and this is not the Ananda we are talking about. Our inner core is full and complete. When there are no additional needs or wants, our inner core is at complete peace with itself. This peace and completeness is our inner core, and this is the Ananda we are talking about.

Issues with SatChitAnanda or Brahman

  • The goal is to discover this inner core of SatChitAnanda within us. The other term used for SatChitAnanda is Brahman. According to the scriptures Brahman is the underlying reality of the universe. It is the substratum of the universe. The scriptures then make a connection by saying that SatChitAnanda, which is our inner core is the same as Brahman, the underlying reality of the universe. This is completely correct and the only truth. Unfortunately, I have been studying Vedanta for over 15 years and I find this confusing. This maybe my problem but it would seem that you have to discover another object out there which Brahman is or look within us to discover SatChitAnanda. The connection is not intuitive and not easy to assimilate. They seem like objects but both SatChitAnanda or Brahman are not any objects, it is our inner core. It is our Self. Unfortunately, these terms do not convey this effectively – at least to me.

 

  • The other problem I face, the term SatChitAnanda or Brahman do not convey the inherent awesome power it has. It has the power to create everything in the universe – all the possible objects. It is also the witness of everything in the universe. We discussed earlier that there are only two things in the universe – the witness and all the objects in the universe. SatChitAnanda is both the witness and creator of all the objects. It is both the Subject and Object. Within SatChitAnanda there is no distinction between subject and object. Subject is object and object is subject. This unique relationship and understanding is not very clear with the term SatChitAnanda or Brahman. Sometimes, SatChitAnanda is referred to as Sakshi (Witness) and sometimes it is referred to as creator with Maya Shakti. This unity of Subject and Object is not very explicit with SatChitAnanda. This adds a layer of confusion in this subject matter.
  • The source of any mind is SatChitAnanda. Everything comes from SatChitAnanda only, including the mind. We know the mind is powerful. All these powers in the mind is due to the grace of SatChitAnanda only. According to Vedanta, you can breakdown the mind into the following structure.
    • Manas (mind)
    • Buddhi (Intelligence)
    • Sakshi (Witness)
    • Ahamkara (Ego)

Unfortunately, there is no proper discussion in the scriptures on how SatChitAnanda, which is the source of everything, becomes the mind. How a non-dual SatChitAnnada becomes manas, buddhi, sakshi and ahamkara? Why not something else? What is the connection between SatChitAnanda and these 4 parts of the mind? How do these 4 parts interact with each other in the mind to create the universe out there? This lack of proper explanation does cause confusion. It makes the proper understanding of SatChitAnanda or Brahman more difficult and makes the subject matter more mysterious.

 

Over the years, I have discovered that understanding ‘Self Awareness’ is a better way to know your inner core or your true Self. If you get a proper understanding of Awareness and the inherent powers within Awareness, it will answer the objections mentioned here and bring clarity to understanding your inner core or Self.

Understanding Self Awareness

To understand Self Awareness, it is necessary to understand what Awareness is. Then again, the pre-requisite to understanding awareness is to analyze the experiences we have. So, let us start with our experiences. All our perceptions, feelings, thoughts and current thinking are nothing but the experiences we have. When we are awake, there is hardly a moment when we do not have some sort of experience. Experience can only happen in the mind and nowhere else.

Experiences Decoded: The following simple equation is a perfect analysis of an Experience.

Experience = Awareness + Form

We are always aware of our experience. We can never say we had an experience, but we are not aware of it. This is simply not possible because awareness is a critical pre-requisite and ingredient of an experience. You are having an experience because you are aware of it. If there is no Awareness, there can be no Experience. We are aware that we have a non-stop and continuous flow of experience. Usually no two experiences are the same, the ‘form’ part of the experience is always different and keeps changing. Sometimes it is visual, sometimes it is auditory and sometimes it is based on memories. The Forms keep changing, the Experience keeps changing and so does the underlying Awareness, also, keeps changing? Our experience confirms that Awareness will always remain the same. The Form part is superimposed on the unchanging Awareness to complete the Experience.

The common factor in everyone’s experience is Awareness. This Awareness seems to be present in everyone’s mind. Can there be so many different Awareness’s? Is the same Awareness present in everyone’s mind?  Is your Awareness different from mine and everyone else? These questions will answer themselves once we get a better understanding of what we really mean by Awareness.

Awareness is the most powerful force in the universe and it is the underlying reality of this universe. It has the power to connect with a Form present in the mind and create an Experience which you are aware of. For an analogy, think of the sun. When there is no light from the sun, you cannot see anything but in the presence of light everything becomes visible. In the same way when any form which comes in the presence of the light of Awareness, the experience bulb lights up in your mind and you are aware of the form. If you think about it, even the light of the sun is a form in the presence of the light of Awareness.

If you carefully study Awareness, you will conclude that the Awareness is made up of a Subject and Object with the following functions –

  1. There must be a Subject, who is Aware of the experience. This subject is the knower of the Awareness
  2. There must be an Object, which must be experienced. This object is the known part of the Awareness
  3. There must be Intelligence by which the subject gets to know the object. This is the knowing part of the Awareness

Knower, Known and Knowing are the 3 powers of Awareness. It must be clear that

  • Awareness = Subject + Object + Intelligence
  • Power of Awareness = Power of Knower + Power of Knowing + Power of Known

Awareness is made of Subject, Object and Intelligence, and it has three different powers – Knower, Knowing and Known. It must be understood that the Subject and Object, and the three powers are not something outside in the world, but they are within Awareness and make up Awareness. If any one of them is missing, the awareness will not work and will be incomplete.

  • If there is an object to be observed but there is no subject, there will be no awareness, as there is no one to see the object.
  • If there is a subject but no object to see, there will no awareness as the subject has no objects to observe.
  • If there is an object but the subject has no way of knowing what this object is, no awareness will take place. This knowing must have intelligence.

Wherever there is awareness, the Subject, Object and Intelligence must be present with all the three powers. In the article “Understanding the Mind – Part 1’ we have given a detailed analysis of the 3 powers – power of Knower, power of Knowing, power of Known.

  • With the power of Known, Awareness has the power to become any object in the universe.
  • With the power of Knowing, Awareness has the power to know the content of everything in the universe
  • With the power of Knower, Awareness has the power to witness everything in the universe.

Awareness and Maya Shakti: Vedanta teaches us that Maya Shakti is the creative power and this creative power is available within Awareness. From our earlier discussion, we saw that Awareness has the following 3 powers:

  1. Power of Knowing/Intelligence
  2. Power of Knower
  3. Power of Known/Objects

Maya Shakti is the total of these 3 powers.

Maya Shakti = Power of Knowing + Power of Knower + Power of Known

Self-Awareness: Awareness is the substratum of anything and everything in this universe that you experience every day. It is the knower of everything that is happening in the mind, it can take the form of all the possible objects and has infinite intelligence to give meaning and understanding to any experience.

There must be a Self, who is Aware; someone says, ‘I am Aware’.  So, who are we? We are the Self, the ‘I’, who says they are Aware. The Self knows it is Aware or it is Self-Awareness. What does Self-Awareness mean? We could understand ‘Self Awareness’ in different ways:

  1. Self-Awareness means that Self is Awareness and Awareness is Self. There is no separation between ‘I’ or ‘Self’ and Awareness. They are one and the same.
  2. Self-Awareness means that the ‘Self is Aware of the Self’ or ‘I is Aware of the I’. In this type of statement, it would mean that the Self is the Subject and Self is also the Object.

In Self-Awareness, Self is both the subject and object. Self is the subject or knower and Self is also the object to be known. Self-Awareness is therefore full, complete and non-dual. Since it is the subject and object, it does not need anything else, it is a ‘stand-alone’, it is self-shining, and it is complete with all the Powers of Awareness (Power of Knowing + Power of Knower + Power of Known). It is like a Self-Shinning bulb of Awareness within the core of all of us.

This Self Awareness is the same as SatChitAnanda or Brahman which is within each living being. Self Awareness brings more clarity to our understanding of our inner core as compared to SatChitAanada or Brahman.

 

Awareness – The Infinite Energy Source

Awareness is the substratum of this universe. In fact, Awareness is the content of each object in the universe. Without Awareness you cannot experience anything in the universe. If you study Awareness, you will find that the Awareness is made up of a Subject, Intelligence and Objects. If any one of them is missing you cannot have Awareness.

  • If there is an object to be observed but there is no subject, there will be no awareness, as there is no one to see the object.
  • If there is a subject but no object to see, there will no awareness as the subject has no object to observe
  • If there is an object but the subject has no way of knowing what this object is, no awareness will take place. This knowing must have intelligence.

Wherever there is awareness, the Subject, Intelligence and Object must be present. This Awareness is present in the mind. When any form or object meets Awareness in the mind you will have experience that object

Vedanta teaches us that our inner core is full, complete and it is stand alone. Awareness is our inner core and for this to be full and complete, it must be Self-Aware. Self-Awareness means that the ‘Awareness is aware of Awareness’. Another way to put this is that ‘Self is aware of the Self’. In Self-Awareness, the subject is Awareness and the object is Awareness. Awareness plays the role of subject and object. In other words, both the subject and object are the same. There is one entity only which is non-dual. This complete, self-standing Self Awareness is our inner core. There is no separation between the subject and object – it is one. It is Self-Shining. This Self-Shinning Awareness is our inner core. It is not dependent upon anything else and it generates its own light of Awareness.

Vedanta teaches us that our inner core is Atma and this Atma is SatChitAnanda. Self-Awareness is the same as SatChitAnanda.

Self-Awareness = SatChitAnanda = Atma

Does Self-Awareness or SatChitAnanda have infinite energy? Yes, it does have infinite energy. How can we understand this? Obviously, there is no scientific proof, but we can use logic and correlate with other scientific investigations. To understand this, a good example is to see how the atomic nucleus works. In school we learned that the atomic nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons. Different elements have a different combination of neutrons and protons. Neutrons have a neutral charge, while the protons have a positive charge. We also know that positive charge must repel each other. If they are supposed to repel each other, how come they stick together within the nucleus. The answer is that there is a strong nuclear force which keeps these protons together within this nucleus. This nuclear force binds the protons together. This nuclear force is within the atomic nucleus and is always present in the nucleus. In fact, this nuclear force is the source for the atomic bomb.

This concept can be applied to keep the object and the subject together as one entity within Self-Awareness. We have discussed earlier that in Self Awareness; the subject is same as the object and the object is same as the subject. Logically they must be separate. The subject is ‘in here’ and the object is ‘out there’. Can you imagine the energy required to bring the subject and object as one homogenous entity? To force them to become one entity. To make the subject into an object and the object into a subject. It seems like an impossible task, but it does happen within Self-Awareness. It is not wrong to predict that the energy required to undertake this task is infinite. An infinite amount of energy will be required to keep the subject and object as one unit within Self Awareness. Like the nuclear force is present within the nucleus, Self-Awareness is a store house for infinite amount of energy to keep the Subject and Object as one homogenous unit. This infinite energy stored in Self-Awareness is the source for the energy in the universe. This energy within Self-Awareness is in ‘unmanifest’ condition and is in ‘potential’ form. This energy within Self-Awareness is inactive, it is dormant, but it is present. Vedanta calls this infinite energy stored within our inner core as Maya Shakti.

How is the Infinite Energy Activated? We have just seen that Self-Awareness is the storehouse for infinite amount of energy. How is this energy activated? All this energy is within Self-Awareness. If all this is true, why don’t we know this or why don’t we experience this. The simple answer is that we are Ignorant. We are ignorant that we are non-dual, we are both the subject and object. Since we are not aware that we are both the subject and the object, this means that the subject and object are no longer one entity, but they are separate. Ignorance separates the subject and object. We then feel this duality with objects ‘out there’ and the subject ‘in here’. This ignorance may seem routine, but it has that power to separate the subject and the object. Ignorance is the only thing which can separate the subject and the object. We saw, it takes an infinite amount of energy to keep the subject and object as non-dual. Despite this, ignorance has the power to separate non-duality to duality of subject ‘in here’ and object ‘out there’. This is the power and strength of ignorance.

We saw earlier that it takes an infinite amount of energy to bind the subject and object as one homogenous non-dual entity. With the separation of subject and object, this infinite energy ‘pops-out ‘and is now available in the cosmic mind and a limited subset of this energy in the individual minds.

The energy which is available in the mind is pure energy. This energy plays different roles within the mind.

  • A part of this energy is used to stretch out time, to create the space out there.
  • Another part of this energy combines with the time pixels to create the full spectrum of the electromagnetic waves. A wide range of frequencies and wavelengths make up the spectrum of the EM energy. The known spectrum starts from Radio waves (300 Khz) to Gamma rays (3 x 1021) Hz. Each time pixels in the spacetime fabric oscillates in such a manner that it is a combination of all the possible frequencies in the EM spectrum. Each pixel is the source for the complete range of EM frequencies. Since time pixel is available in every part of the spacetime fabric. This means the spectrum of energy also covers the entire spacetime fabric. This EM energy provides the coating for spacetime fabric.

A detailed explanation of the above two bullet points is available in the article ‘The Science behind the Projection of the Universe

Okay, we have shown that Self-Awareness is the storehouse for an infinite amount of energy and this energy makes its presence in the cosmic and individual minds. Is there any other way to corroborate this discussion? Anything which will support this. Yes, there is. For this we need to understand photons and the Einstein special theory of relativity. This will show and support that there is infinite energy in the mind.

Photons and Infinite Energy:

A Photon is unique; it is the only particle in the universe which travels at the speed of light – 186,000 miles per sec. According to science it is physically impossible for anything to travel at the speed of light, because it will require infinite amount of energy to push something to achieve the speed of light. Infinite means infinite, therefore it is just impossible to achieve the speed of light for any object. At the Large Hardon Collider in CERN, Switzerland, it has been possible to achieve 99.999% of the speed of light – achieving 100% is impossible.

This really makes you wonder- if it is impossible to achieve the speed of light how come the photons achieve this speed so easily, and to top it all, they seem to be everywhere in the universe. Anything traveling at the speed of light must have infinite energy or mass, but photons have zero rest mass.   If you apply the tool kit of the special theory of relativity to the photon, you get a better understanding about energy and photons. To explain the implications of this theory, Einstein provided a thought experiment, as it is impossible for cars or rockets to reach speeds anywhere close to the speed of light.

You are on earth and your twin brother goes into space in a rocket. You both have atomic clocks. Your twin brother’s rocket is traveling at the speed of 0.8c. You at earth measure the speed of the light, you find it be c, your twin brother also measures the speed of light, he will also find the speed to be c. How come? The clock in the rocket slows down and his ruler in the rocket gets compressed and is much shorter so that the speed of light is still c. His spacetime framework is more compressed, but the speed of light is still c. Your twin brother returns to earth. Your clock shows he travelled for 10 years, while his clock shows he travelled for 6 years only.

Your twin brother goes on another trip and now he increases his speed to 0.9999c. He measures the speed of light and he still finds it to be c, the same as you will find on earth. His clock will be running very slowly as compared to your clock on earth. He returns after 50 days according his clock. Your clock on earth will show he has travelled for 10 years. Amazing stuff! His spacetime is extremely compressed.

Here’s an addition to the Einstein thought experiment. Your twin brother enjoys being in space. He goes back for another trip, and now his rocket travels at the speed of light c. He is tries to measure the speed of light, but he is unable to do so. Light travels at c and his rocket is also traveling at speed c, both are going in parallel to each other speed wise. To make a measurement you need light to bounce of an object, but if the rocket and light are going at the same speed, it is impossible to take this measurement. When he returns to earth, your clock shows he has travelled for 10 years, he will find his clock is at a standstill, no time has passed for him. Also, according to him he has covered no distance. You aged 10 years; he felt he did not go anywhere, both time wise and distance wise and therefore did not age at all.

Now replace the rocket and the twin brother with a photon. The photon will have the same experience as your twin brother travelling at speed of light c in a rocket. Here’s what you could say the photon “experienced” the following according to the special theory of relativity.

  • Distance travelled by photon = 0
  • Time experienced by photon = 0 or standstill
  • Energy content of photon = infinity. The formulae for the Lorenz Transformation will confirm this.

What is your experience as an observer stationed on earth tracking a photon traveling for 10 years?

  • Distance traveled by photon = 10 light years
  • Time travelled by photon = 10 years
  • Mass of photon = 0
  • Speed of light = c

Amazing conclusions – you think the photons move around at the speed of light, but ‘according’ to the photons, it does not move, it is stationary. In the thought experiment, you see your twin brother is travelling at the speed of light, but your twin knows he is not moving, because his clock is stationary.

According to the photon, it feels it is at a standstill not covering any distance and has infinite amount of energy. However, the observer feels the photon is covering a large distance traveling at the speed of light. How do we interpret this information? Based on the information we have understood, we can make the following important conclusions

  1. The photon travels only in the presence of the observer. If there is no observer, then the photon remains at a standstill. An observer is a prerequisite for the photon to travel. So, whenever a photon comes in the presence of Awareness in any mind – your mind, my mind or the cosmic mind, the photon becomes conscious and then and only then we are aware of the photon. It is this photon which zips around at the speed of light. The perception must take place in the mind first, only then it is possible for the photon to be observed in the physical world.
  2. From the photon’s perspective, it is always at standstill in time and covers no distance. If time does not move for the photon, it must be outside time and it must be beyond the spacetime framework. If it is within the spacetime framework, time for the photon must change. Time changes for everything in space. Where is beyond spacetime? According to Vedanta the cosmic and individual mind is beyond time and the spacetime framework. This means that the infinite energy of the photon is present in the mind only.

So, the infinite energy of the photon is present in the mind. We saw earlier that the infinite energy ‘popping out’ from Self-Awareness is also in the mind. This means that the infinite energy of the photons is the same energy which was released by Self-Awareness due to ignorance. Therefore, the energy for the photons comes from Self-Awareness.

The mind is a power house and it has the capacity to handle and manage the infinite amount of energy. It is not easy to fathom how there can be infinite energy in the mind. Looking at the sun, the awesome energy it has, the destruction power it has. The sun energy is just a tiny tiny minuscule of the total energy of the universe. So, how awesome the total energy of the universe must be? All this energy is in the mind only. How can this infinite energy be stored in the mind? The cosmic mind stores all the energy and just a small subset is available in the individual minds It must be understood that the energy in the mind is in the subtle form and not gross or physical form. The subtle form is part of the subtle universe. Very little is known of the subtle universe. The energy could be in a wave form or energy equations or some software code representing objects in the gross world out there. These are living wave forms or living equations, and these are converted to gross forms and these are the gross forms we see out there. Whatever the format of the energy in the mind, it is a fact there is an infinite amount of energy in the cosmic and individual minds.

How Does the Projection Work?

In the post ‘Projection – The Only Truth’ we have shown that universe ‘out there’ is projected by the mind. This is the only truth. Let us see how this projection works? It is easy to compare this to an actual digital projector. Without being too technical, there are two major parts to any projector. One is the light source or bulb and the other is the content which must be projected. The mind also has a similar structure:

  • A Bulb of Awareness
  • Content which must be projected

We have discussed in many places that our inner core is Self-Awareness. This Awareness is like a bulb of Awareness. When the content in the mind comes in touch with the bulb of awareness we have experience of the world out there. Self-Awareness is the same as SatChitAnanda and this Self-Awareness has many inbuilt powers. We will discuss the following powers, as they are relevant to our discussion.

Unchanging: Awareness is unchanging. It remains the same and it will never change (no change over the 3 tenses). In something which is unchanging, time must be static, and it does not move. Time is an inherent quality within something which is not changing but this time factor is not moving. Because this time factor is not moving, only for this reason some thing is unchanging. If for whatever reason, this ‘unchanging’ starts ‘changing’, time will and must ‘pop out’ from this unchanging entity. If something is changing, it means that what is now, is no longer the same. Since the two events are not the same, the time factor comes into play to connect the two events. It is not incorrect to say that time drives the change between two events. Awareness is unchanging and the only reason it does not change is because the time factor is static.

Infinite Energy Source: Does Self-Awareness or SatChitAnanda have infinite energy? Yes, it does have infinite energy. How can we understand this? Obviously, there is no scientific proof, but we can use logic and correlate with other scientific investigations. To understand this, a good example is to see how the atomic nucleus works. In school we learned that the atomic nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons. Different elements have a different combination of neutrons and protons. Neutrons have a neutral charge, while the protons have a positive charge. We also know that positive charge must repel each other. If they are supposed to repel each other, how come they stick together within the nucleus. The answer is that there is a strong nuclear force which keeps these protons together within this nucleus. This nuclear force binds the protons together. This nuclear force is within the atomic nucleus and is always present in the nucleus. In fact, this nuclear force is the source for the atomic bomb.

This concept can be applied to keep the object and the subject together as one entity within Self-Awareness. In Self Awareness; the subject is same as the object and the object is same as the subject. Logically they must be separate. The subject is ‘in here’ and the object is ‘out there’. Can you imagine the energy required to bring the subject and object as one homogeneous entity? To force them to become one entity. To make the subject into an object and the object into a subject. It seems like an impossible task, but it does happen within Self-Awareness. It is not wrong to predict that the energy required to undertake this task is infinite. An infinite amount of energy will be required to keep the subject and object as one unit within Self Awareness. Like the nuclear force is present within the nucleus, Self-Awareness is a store house for infinite amount of energy to keep the Subject and Object as one homogeneous unit. This infinite energy stored in Self-Awareness is the source for the energy in the universe. This energy within Self-Awareness is in ‘unmanifest’ condition and is in ‘potential’ form. This energy within Self-Awareness is inactive, it is dormant, but it is present. Vedanta calls this infinite energy stored within our inner core as Maya Shakti. We will shortly see how this energy is activated and how it is used in different ways to power the projection of the universe ‘out there’.

Once the content in the individual mind encounters the Bulb of Awareness, you have magic, you have awareness of the content. This awareness is displayed in the world ‘out there’. Vidyaranya, the great sage from the 14th century in the 6th chapter of Panchadasi has compared the image ‘out there’ to a painting. If you think about it, this is a perfect analogy. Anything and everything we see out there is like a painting. In fact, the painting ‘out there’ is superior to the painting that any human being can create. See the variety, see the shades, see the beauty of nature. It is breathtaking.

Vidyaranya has analyzed the following steps needed to create any painting.

  1. You need a canvas for the painting. Vidyaranya talks about a piece of cloth as the canvas.
  2. You need some sort of starch to harden the canvas to make it painting ready.
  3. You make a line drawing of the sketch you want to create.
  4. You add color to finish the painting.

The projection of the content from the mind follows the same four steps.

Step 1: You need space – the Canvas

Step 2: Harden the Canvas with Energy

Step 3: Create the Subtle Image of the Painting

Step 4: Finish the Projection

Let us discuss each of the steps in more detail to understand how the actual projection is taking place. This discussion is rooted in science so that this does not remain abstract and philosophical.

Step 1: You need space – the Canvas

There is no denying all the ‘painting’ or ‘image’ being projected out there is in space. Space seems to be the canvas for the projection. It is the screen on which the painting is created or projected. We see space everywhere but do not have much of an understanding about the 1) fabric of space and 2) how space is created?  Let us try and understand these two aspects:

Fabric of Space: You will be surprised to learn that ‘time’ is the underlying cause of space. Einstein understood this, and he called space as spacetime. When we look at space, we mostly see distances. The tree is 100 feet away, the person standing out there is 300 feet and so on. This perspective does not give a proper understanding about space. We have looked at space in terms of time. We have discussed this subject elsewhere but would like to return to this again.

If we can see a faraway star, say 5 million light years away, it will take light from that star 5 million years to reach us. Now, we see the sun, the light from the sun takes 8 min to reach us. We look at the moon; light will take 3 seconds to reach us. We look at the plane flying in the sky, at 30,000 feet; light will take about 300 milliseconds to reach us. As the distance of the object being viewed is reduced, the time taken for light to reach us or for us to see it is much smaller. So, we can see that time is the actual fabric of space. Time is the cause of space. Space is just the result, it is the effect of time. So, space is time based.

Space vs Spacetime: People use space and spacetime interchangeable. This causes confusion. Let us clarify this. When you look at space in terms of distances, it is space. However, when you look at the same space in terms of time, that space is spacetime. Space is ‘out there’ you can see it. Spacetime is not ‘out there’ it within your mind. It is a mental thing, you imagine the sun is 8 min away from you. You imagine objects are so many seconds away from you. All this imagination takes place in the mind only. Spacetime is in the mind first and then this spacetime is converted to space ‘out there’.

Pixels of Spacetime: We know an LCD monitor is made up of pixels. Pixels are picture elements which make up the surface of the monitor screen. In the same way spacetime is also made up of pixels. Since spacetime is time based, the pixels must also be time based. The starting pixel will be at t = 0, which is the start of the spacetime fabric and the value of the time pixel will increase as you move further away on the spacetime fabric. How apart are these pixels in space? Well, based on Planks Constant, the smallest division of time is 10-44 seconds. So, spacetime is not a continuous and a homogenous thing. It is made up of time-based pixels which are 10-44 seconds apart. The entire spacetime is made up of pixels which are 10-44 seconds apart. The first pixel will be at 10-44 seconds, the second pixel will be at 2 x 10-44 seconds away, the third pixel will be at 3 x 10-44 seconds away. This progression will continue till the end of the spacetime fabric.

How is Space Created? Before we discuss this, we have to take a step back and understand Self-Awareness and Ignorance. We have discussed earlier that Self-Awareness is our inner core, it is self-standing, it is non-dual in which subject is object and object is subject. We also discussed that this Self-Awareness is formless, unchanging and it has infinite energy. All these powers are within Self-Awareness. If all this is true, why don’t we know this or why don’t we experience this. The simple answer is that we are Ignorant. We are ignorant that we are non-dual, we are both the subject and object. Since we are not aware that we are both the subject and the object, this means that the subject and object are no longer one entity, but they are separate. Ignorance separates the subject and object. We then feel this duality with objects ‘out there’ and the subject ‘in here’. This ignorance may seem routine, but it has that power to separate the subject and the object. Ignorance is the only thing which can separate the subject and the object. We saw, it takes an infinite amount of energy to keep the subject and object as non-dual. Despite this, ignorance has the power to separate non-duality to duality of subject ‘in here’ and object ‘out there’. This is the power and strength of ignorance.

We saw earlier that it takes an infinite amount of energy to bind the subject and object as one homogenous non-dual entity. With the separation of subject and object, this infinite energy is now available in the cosmic mind and a limited subset of this energy in the individual minds. The ‘Unchanging’ Self-Awareness becomes the changing cosmic mind. The formless Self-Awareness becomes the cosmic mind with the potential to take an unlimited number of forms.

Due to ignorance all the powers within Self-Awareness pop out in the mind. We saw earlier that Self-Awareness is unchanging because the time factor within Self-Awareness is stationary and it does not move. Due to Ignorance, when the ‘Unchanging’ becomes ‘Changing’, the time factor is now active within the cosmic mind and the individual mind. The clock which creates time is now available within the cosmic and individual mind.

The cosmic mind has infinite energy and the clock from which time flows. The clock we are taking about is unique, this clock has the power to create or generate time. It is not easy to visualize this, but the mind has the power to create time. The individual mind has a limited amount of energy and the clock to run its own activity. The individual mind is always connected to the cosmic mind and it can draw upon the required amount of energy. So, the individual mind has the energy and the clock to generate time. This power if within each individual mind.

The energy which is available in the mind is pure energy. This energy plays different roles within the mind. It must be understood that this energy is independent of time, it is raw or pure energy which is available in the mind. Let us see what happens when a part of this energy interacts with time in the individual mind. This energy stretches out time so that every second in time is equal to 186,000 miles (speed of light). Just like a rubber band can be stretched outwards, in the same way time can be stretched outwards by this pure energy. With this stretching of time, space is created. One second of time in space becomes 186,000 miles. This is the space we see ‘out there’. This space is the canvas which is used for the projection of the painting or image. So, space is created when this pure energy stretches out time.

Science has concluded the presence of dark energy in the universe. They have also concluded that the dark energy is expanding. We know that the universe is expanding and if the universe is expanding, the space must also be expanding. This creation of space and the expansion of the universe needs energy. Science has not fully understood this but the dark energy being discussed by science is the same as the pure energy which is used to stretch time to create space.

Dark Energy (as referred by science) = Pure Energy in Mind

Science knows that the dark energy is present, but it is unable to locate it anywhere in the universe. It is just not possible to find dark energy ‘out there’. This is because the dark energy is part of the infinite pure energy and is present in the cosmic/individual mind only. It is not present in space ‘out there’. This dark energy is used to stretch time. Time is subtle, you will not find time ‘out there’. Time is a mental thing, it is present in the mind only. The stretching of time takes place in the mind only. The dark energy is part of the infinite pure energy which is present in the cosmic/individual mind. There is no denying that the consequence of stretching of the time in the mind is the creation of space out there. Space is gross and is visible ‘out there’.

The stretching of time is a personal or individual thing. Every individual mind creates their own space. How can we say that? We have discussed earlier that according to the Einstein theory of relativity, there is a connection between motion and time. If you are stationary and start walking or running, the time clock in your mind slows down. Since your time has slowed down and when this interacts with energy, this energy will stretch your time to create space which is 186,000 miles. But the size of this space will be more compressed then the space when you were stationary. So, every time there is motion (or change of speed of motion) the pace of ticking of time in the clock changes and this in turn changes the size of space. What remains constant is that the size of the space is still 186,000 miles for every second of time. This means, depending upon the level of motion each living being in this universe will create their own space.

Size of Space: Logically space starts with you and ends with the outer edge of the universe, which is 13.7 billion light years away. This may be true, but do we even see the outer edge of the universe. We are sitting inside our house; space will end at the walls. You cannot see beyond the wall, so space must end there. If you go out for a walk, you may see things which are a few hundred meters away, so your space will be a few hundred meters. In the night, when you look at the sky, you will see many stars and your space will cover a long distance. The space will be limited by what you are seeing. We can theoretically say that space covers the full universe right up to the edge of the universe, but space is limited to what you are seeing right now. The size of space will keep varying depending upon what you are seeing.

Step 2: Harden the Canvas with Energy

Like starch is used to harden the canvas made up of cloth, energy is used to harden every part of the spacetime fabric. We saw pure energy was released with the separation of the subject and object from Self-Awareness. We just saw that some of this energy was used to stretch time to create space. Another portion of this energy combines with the time pixels to create electromagnetic (EM) waves. How does this happen? We saw earlier that spacetime fabric is made up of time-based pixels which are 10-44 seconds apart. This pure energy combines with each time-based pixel in the spacetime fabric to give time-based energy to the pixels. What is time-based energy? Time based energy is nothing but the source of the electromagnetic waves. The moment energy combines with time you get frequencies and wavelengths. In school we learned that EM energy is made up of waves. Frequency and wavelengths are the two key components of the EM wave. Also, frequency is directly related to time.

f (frequency) x w (wavelength) = c (speed of light)

f (frequency) = 1/t (time)

A wide range of frequencies and wavelengths make up the spectrum of the EM energy. The known spectrum starts from Radio waves (300 Khz) to Gamma rays (3 x 1021) Hz. Each time pixels in the spacetime fabric oscillates in such a manner that it is a combination of all the possible frequencies in the EM spectrum. Each pixel is the source for the complete range of EM frequencies. Since time pixel is available in every part of the spacetime fabric. This means the spectrum of energy also covers the entire spacetime fabric. This EM energy provides the coating for spacetime fabric.

There is a misunderstanding, people think that the space out there is made up of vacuum. That maybe true because there is a lack of particles like hydrogen and other elements. If there are no particles, it does not mean that there is no EM energy. Since each time-based pixel is powered by energy, this EM energy is available at every part of the spacetime fabric. Where ever there are time pixels, this energy is available.

Science has also discovered this, they call this the vacuum energy. It is active and bubbling under the surface of the spacetime fabric. In our discussion, I do not want to leave the impression that the EM energy is something out there. Space is out there, but energy and time is not out there, it is within the mind only. The time-based pixels are not out there but within the mind. Both the time and energy are subtle, it just cannot exist out there. Everything out there is gross, there is no place for subtle elements ‘out there’. The vacuum energy is bubbling in the mind, but it is directly connected to the space out there. A good way to understand this is to compare it with holograms we have seen in movies. The energy source for the holograms is within the projector, but the space is created out there. This is the type of relationship time and energy in the mind has with the space out there. Mind is the projector for the space out there and time and energy is within the mind.

Step 3: Create the Subtle Image of the Painting

The line drawing of the painting must come first. In the same way, the subtle image of the painting is created in the mind first. Everything subtle must happen in the mind only. Let us see how this work? We saw earlier that due to Ignorance, there is a separation of object and subject in the non-dual Self Awareness. This separation creates the following 4 components which make up the individual mind.

  • Manas (the home of the objects)
  • Buddhi (the home of Intelligence)
  • Sakshi (the home of the Subject)
  • Ahamkara (the home of the self/ego)

The cosmic map which we discussed earlier presents itself in the manas. Please note we are talking about the software code of the cosmic map and not the actual maps like we see on the smartphones. If you are in your home, the software code for that part of the cosmic map will show up in your mind. If you are walking outdoors, the objects around you will be present in the cosmic map and be available in the manas. The manas has no intelligence, it does not know what these objects are. It must be understood that these objects are made up of waveforms and these waveforms are covered by ignorance. Manas passes on this waveform covered with ignorance to the Buddhi for help and decoding. The Buddhi is intelligence, it knows. It has this power of knowing everything. With this power, it removes the layer of ignorance from the waveform to reveal or know the objects. Once this is done, the waveform is no longer covered by ignorance, the intelligence of the Buddhi is superimposed on the revealed waveform. The waveform is now made up of intelligence. Intelligence is the ingredient or substratum of the waveform. Vedanta calls these intelligent waveforms as Vrittis or mental waves. These are intelligent mental waves and it knows what form it must take. They know what they are and do not need any further assistance.

Any scene usually is a total of many individual objects. Each object has its own metal wave or vritti. They superimpose on each other and form a complex vritti representing the scene. Each individual object waveform (or vritti) is made up of intelligence. Since these are mental waves, they must have energy to exist. Without energy, the mental waves cannot function. Each vritti representing an object has a unique energy profile. The total of the individual objects will have a complex energy profile representing the scene.

Placement of Objects on Spacetime: The mental waves made up of intelligence must now be placed appropriately on the spacetime fabric. We have seen earlier that the spacetime fabric is made up of time. Time is subtle and is a mental event. The spacetime fabric is also a mental event. Space is gross and is out there but the spacetime fabric is subtle. The observer within you is the starting point for space. The mental wave in the Buddhi represents the cosmic map which is being viewed in the mind. Objects closer to you in the cosmic map will be placed closer on the spacetime fabric. Objects which are further away in the cosmic map will be placed further away on the spacetime fabric. In this way, all the objects will be placed appropriately on the spacetime fabric.

Another important issue is that the correct version of the object must be used while placing the object on the spacetime fabric. Light takes some time to reach us, so the objects are always dated and are never the ‘now’ version. It is always the dated version. If the object is 0.1 µs away from you, that version of the object must be used. If a tree next to this object is 0.15 µs away, then that version of the tree must be used. There is no denying this is a very complex process of choosing the correct version of the object to be placed at the right location on the spacetime fabric. I guess, the cosmic map is pre-programmed to consider all these complicated issues. All these issues are taken care of in the software of the cosmic map.

Energy and Spacetime: We have just seen that all the objects which are made up of mental waves are placed appropriately on the spacetime fabric. These mental waves are energy waves with intelligence as their ingredient. How do these mental waves interact with the spacetime? Einstein has already answered this question. In his theory of General Relativity, Einstein concluded that when energy or mass is placed on the spacetime fabric, the spacetime fabric curves. It is exactly like a stretched rubber sheet. If you place a ball on this rubber sheet, the weight of the ball will curve the rubber sheet around it. Heavier the ball the greater the curvature. The spacetime fabric behaves in the same way in the presence of energy. The energy from the mental waves will leave an imprint (or curvature) on the spacetime fabric. Wherever there is a concentration of energy, the spacetime fabric will curve. Higher the amount of energy greater the curvature. Lesser the amount of energy smaller the curvature. Even a tiny amount of energy will leave a dent on the spacetime fabric.

This imprint on the spacetime fabric is like the line drawing we make before adding paint to a painting. We saw that the mental waves in the buddhi is made up of intelligence. This intelligence is very much a part of the imprint which is left on the spacetime fabric.

Step 4: Finish the Projection

If you look at any painting, you will notice that the painting is made up of the following two things:

  1. Form
  2. Content

The trees, people, houses or any other object you see in the painting is the form present in the painting. The paint is the only content of the painting. If you think about it carefully, nothing else is present in the painting other than the paint. There may be different colors but all these colors are still paint only. As another example, when you see a movie, we see so many characters and objects on the screen. All these are different forms in the movie. The content of these forms is nothing but light. Light with different shades and colors is the content of the movies.

We have compared the projection of the world out there with a painting. So, like the painting or the movie, everything in the world out there is made up of form + content only. Let us discuss this further.

Form: In the last section, we discussed that the intelligent mental waves or vrittis makes an imprint on the spacetime fabric. This energy curves the spacetime fabric. We saw, the spacetime fabric in the mind is made up of time pixels. Each time pixel is an outlet for the EM energy. The imprinted mental waves are made of intelligence and it knows what object/s it represents. This knowledgeable imprint of the mental wave interacts with the EM energy. What happens? It sucks out the EM energy stored in the pixels and uses that energy to become the form of the object. The mental wave knows what form it must take, it uses the EM energy and becomes that required form. This form is no longer subtle but it is gross. The gross form of the object is created by the interaction of the mental wave with the EM energy. The placement of this form in space will depend on the location of the mental wave on the spacetime fabric. If this mental wave is 0.1 µs away from the start of the spacetime fabric, this form will be located 100 feet from you in space. This is because light will take 0.1 µs to travel 100 feet. In the same way, the imprint of all the mental waves will interact with the EM energy and create gross forms and these forms will be located at appropriate distances in space.

Science has discussed this interaction between mental energy waves and EM energy. They call this the Quantum Field Theory (QFT). To put this simply, QFT states that when two energy fields interact with each other, particles are created. This is exactly what is happening over here. The mental energy wave and the EM energy are the two fields, and when they interact the gross form of the object is created.

Content: We have the form of the object, what about the content of the object? What is the content? Science tells us that the content of the objects is made up of sub-atomic particles. The next question – what are the sub-atomic particles made up of? Some people say, it is made up of strings vibrating in 11 dimensions. The next question – what are strings made up of? This can be a never-ending exercise. Also, if you study the sub-atomic particles, you will find that 99.999% is empty space. What is this empty space made up of? It is going to be difficult for science to answer this properly. So, what is the content of the object form?

If you are a student of Vedanta, the answer would be that the content is Awareness. Awareness is the ingredient of every object in the world out there. If you have an experience of objects, you must be aware of that experience. Awareness is the prerequisite of any experience. If there is no Awareness, there can be no experience. The following equation links experience with Awareness.

Experience = Awareness + Form.

We just saw that forms are created by the interaction of mental waves and EM energy. For us to experience these forms, they must be filled up with Awareness. Without Awareness, there cannot be any experience. To experience any object, Awareness must take the exact shape of the form. If the form is a circle, Awareness cannot be a rectangle. Awareness must also be a circle. Therefore, Awareness must take the exact shape of the form. Just like in the painting, the forms in the painting are filled up with paint, in the same way, all the forms ‘out there’ are filled up with Awareness.

We know Awareness is made up of the following 3 ingredients and 3 powers. The power of the known is the power within Awareness which allows Awareness to become any object. It can take up the shape of any object. We have discussed this in more detail in our post ‘Analyzing Awareness’.

Awareness = Subject + Intelligence + Object

Power of Awareness = Power of Knower + Power of Knowing + Power of Known

Going back to the functioning of the mind, we saw that the object covered with ignorance in the manas is passed on to the Buddhi – the home of the intelligence for help. The buddhi with its intelligence decodes and creates the mental wave or vrittis. This mental wave has the object + intelligence – the two ingredients of Awareness. The only thing missing is the subject to complete Awareness. When these mental waves come in the presence of the observer (the subject or sakshi), magic happens – Awareness is created. This Awareness with the power to become any object fills up all the forms.

When Awareness fills up the object form, the painting is completed. This completes the projection of the objects out there. If you think about it carefully, there is no projection. What ever you see ‘out there’ is the same as what was in the mental waves. There is no addition or subtraction in the content. The only thing that has happened is that the subtle mind has become a gross mind. The subtle content has become gross content. What you see ‘out there’ is directly related to the content of the subtle mind. So, calling it the gross mind is a good way to understand the world out there. Everything ‘out there’ is nothing but the gross mind, it is your gross mind. This way, you can feel a direct connection with the world ‘out there’ by thinking this is my mind only. You can feel the world out there is part of me and my gross mind. It is an awesome feeling.

It must be understood that the projection we have seen is that of a single frame only. A single frame by itself is static. We want to see continuous motion. To see continuous motion, science tells us that there must be at least 24 frames per second. How many frames are projected by the mind is unknown but there must be at least 25 frames per seconds. The complex process of creating space and gross forms is repeated for every frame. Each frame is different from the previous frame. The content could be different and also each object would have aged a bit between two frames.

Projection – The Only Truth

Vedanta teaches us that the universe ‘out there’ is the projection of the mind. This is completely contradictory to what science teaches us. Science teaches us that there is already a universe ‘out there’ made up of unlimited number of objects. To perceive this universe, light travels from these objects and hits the retina of our eyes. The image in the retina is upside down, this image is reversed and the optical signal from the retina is transmitted to the brain. What happens in the brain is still unknown, but somehow, we perceive the image of the universe out there.

Vedanta teaches that the ‘inside’ subtle objects in the mind comes first and this becomes the ‘outside’ gross objects. Science teaches that the ‘outside’ gross objects becomes the ‘inside’ subtle objects in the brain. Both are completely opposite. Only one of them can be true? Which one? Projection of the universe by the mind is the only truth. We will now analyze this issue from different angles to show this hypothesis as correct.

  1. By using Science
  2. By using logic
  3. By using Math’s
  4. By using Quantum Physics
  5. By using Neuroscience

 

  1. By using Science – Theory of Special Relativity

Einstein’s theory of special relativity was a major discovery in science, it discovered a connection between motion and time. The underlying theme of this discovery was that speed of light is fixed at 186,000 miles per second irrespective of the frame of reference. To understand this, let us say a person is traveling in a car at 40% of the speed of light and this person takes a measurement of light from the car. This person would expect that the speed of light to travel at 60% of its original speed. This person will be surprised to learn that the speed of the light is still 186,000 miles per sec. How does this happen? The only way to explain this is that the ‘time’ of the person travelling in the car has slowed down. His clock will move slower as compared to people outside the car. His space or ruler will also be more compressed. Since time has slowed down and space has been compressed, his measurement of the speed of light will still be 186,000 miles per second. So, the main conclusion from this discovery is that if you have motion (in fact any motion), time slows down. Even if you are walking or traveling at 40% of the speed of light, time slows down. How much time will slow down will depend on speed. Higher the speed, more the slowing of time. At the speed of light, time does not move, it remains stationary. Higher the speed, space gets more compressed. We do not realize this, but the connection between motion and time has tremendous implications in our daily life. Do we see motion in this universe? Of course, there is motion everywhere. We see an ant crawling, we see a person walking and someone else is cycling or going in a car. Some are going faster while others are slower. If you apply the principles of Einstein theory, it would mean that the time clock for each person is beating differently. If two people are stationary, their clocks will beat at the same rate, the moment one of them starts walking, the clock for that person walking will slow down.

If the time clocks are different, the space compression is also different for each person. If the clocks are beating differently for each person, that would mean that the atoms are vibrating differently. If you are stationary and I am walking, my clock is different, my atoms are vibrating differently, so all my objects are completely different from your objects. What does this mean? It means, that I project my own objects and universe, and you project your objects and universe. In the same way, every living being creates their own universe.

The only correct conclusion from this discussion is that each person is projecting a different universe based on their internal clock. Einstein’s theory of relativity therefore supports what Vedanta is teaching us about the projection of the universe.

  1. By using Logical Reasoning

Let us study the external objects ‘out there’. If we can see a faraway star, say 5 million light years away, it will take light from that star 5 million years to reach us. Now, we see the sun, the light from the sun takes 8 min to reach us. We look at the moon; its light will take 3 seconds to reach us. We look at the plane flying in the sky, at 30,000 feet; its light will take about 300 milliseconds to reach us. As the distance of the object being viewed is reduced, the time taken for light to reach us or for us to see it is much smaller. I now look at the tree outside the window; the time taken for light to reach me is 10 microseconds (10-6). I am looking at the computer screen 1 ft away typing this article, light will take about 1 nanosecond (10-9). As the distance reduces the time taken for light also reduces. If you extrapolate this backward, the only logical place for t to be equal to 0 is the Observer, who is watching all these objects. This means that the observer within you is the starting point of space. This starting point of the universe is t = 0.

If you or anyone else looks at the universe, they will reach the same conclusion. Everyone has their own t=0, which is within themselves. This will apply to every living being in the universe. It would seem; therefore, I have my own t=0, you have your own t=0 and every living being in the universe has their own t=0. The only way to understand this, is that every living being creates their own universe and this universe starts with t=0.

This logical reasoning does show that each individual living being projects their own universe and the space of this universe starts with the observer within you.

  1. By using Mathematical calculation – Hubble Constant

Does the universe expand? Science tells us that the universe is expanding. Why is the universe expanding? How fast is the universe expanding? Science is not very sure about these questions. Using powerful telescopes, they have watched the movement of different planets and galaxies and noticed that the expansion is uneven. At some places the expansion is faster and at other places the expansion is slower. There is no explanation about this uneven expansion. Looking at some far away planets and looking at their rate of expansion, they have come up with a Hubble constant. The Hubble constant states that the rate of expansion is about 71 kilometers per second per megaparsec. A megaparsec is a million parsecs, or about 3.3 million light-years. It means objects 3.3 million light years away are expanding at 71 kilometers per second. This is based on observation only. If you understand the fundamentals of the universe expansion, it is possible to calculate and prove the Hubble Constant.

So, what are the fundamentals of this expansion? Understanding the spacetime fabric is the key to understand this expansion. We have seen that the individual person or the observer location is the start point for the spacetime fabric. We can call this the t = 0 for the spacetime fabric.

What is the maximum size of the spacetime fabric?  Science tells us that the age of the universe is 13.7 billion years old. This is the big bang moment. Light reaching us from the big bang moment would be the outer edge of the spacetime fabric. Light will take 13.7 billion light years to reach us from this big bang moment. This is the outer edge because there was no universe before the big bang. So, the size of the universe: 13.7 billion light years or 12.9 x 1025 meters. One light year is the amount of distance light travels in one year, which is = 9.46 × 1015 meters

Is this spacetime fabric expanding? Definitely, yes. How much? Let us try and understand this. If you assume the universe is 13.7 billion years old ‘right now’. After one second, the age of the universe will be 13.7 billion years + 1 sec. Light must now travel an additional 186,000 miles to reach us, which means the size of the universe has grown by 186,000 miles. After 10 seconds, the size of the universe would increase by 186,000 x 10 = 1,860,000 miles. After one year from now, the size of the universe will increase by 1 light year. 1 light year is the distance light travels in one year.

From the above, we can conclude that the rate of expansion of the Universe = 1 light year per year.

If you can imagine the spacetime fabric as an elastic rubber band, starting from the start point t=0 (which means you) to the edge of the universe. The observer’s side is fixed, it is always t = 0; the other end which is the outer edge of the universe is being pulled outwards. This elastic space time fabric is expanding by 186,000 miles every second. As time flows, the expansion of the spacetime fabric will continue at the speed of light.

It must be understood that only the edge of the universe is expanding at the speed of light, anything in between will not expand at the same speed, it will be proportional to the distance from the observer. Using the rubber band example, if you pull the outer edge by a certain distance, the inner parts will not be stretched by the same amount. The stretching will be more at the outer edges and it will be much less as you move inwards to the other side. This means that the rate of outward expansion of galaxies, stars, etc., would really depend upon how far these galaxies are from the observer. The observer is t=0. Stars close by will expand more slowly, as compared to stars which are further away. This is because the space time fabric for the stars nearby will stretch less as compared to the stars which are further away.

Based on our understanding of the stretching of the space time fabric, let us try and calculate the Hubble Constant

  • The size of the universe is 13.7 billion light years and it expands by 1 light year every year.
  • The object 3.3 million light years away from us, it will expand by 3.3x 106/13.7x 109 = .240 x 10-3 light year per year.
  • 1 light year = 9.46 × 1012 Km
  • Therefore .240 x 10-3 light year per year = 2.27 x 109 Km per year.
  • 1 year = 3.15 x 107 sec
  • 2.27 x 109 Km per year = 71 km /sec

The above calculation shows that the Hubble constant is indeed 71 km/sec. We have just proven what has been observed by science. Since the calculation of the Hubble constant is accurate, it only shows that the expansion model explained in this section is correct and accurate.

This expansion model shows that the starting point of space is the observer within you. Since each one of us has their own observer, so each one projects their own universe full of objects. This does mean that the subtle objects come first and these subtle objects in the mind are projected out there as gross objects.

  1. By using Quantum Physics

Quantum Physics was born when they discovered the wave/particle duality for light. They found that light sometimes behaved as a wave and sometimes it behaved like a particle. de Broglie, who got a noble prize in 1929, showed that not only light but all matter in the universe has the wave/particle duality. It means, you, me, the trees, the car, the planets, the house, every object in this universe has both wave and particle duality. We are both wave and particles.

To get a better understanding of this wave/particle duality, several experiments were conducted led by Schrodinger. Schrodinger’s famous equation represented the wave part of the wave/particle duality. Schrodinger’s equation represented a physical system and this physical system always consists of an observing system and the observed system. The observed system is the wave function, and this wave function is the wave component of the wave/particle duality as postulated by de Broglie.  When this observing system interacts with the observed system at any given time, the wave function of the observed system collapses to become a particle. This is how a particle is created from a wave.

The biggest takeaway from this is that the ‘wave part’ comes first. This wave collapses in the presence of the observer to become particle. This shows that the particle comes later. In some ways the wave is the cause and particle are the effect. The wave comes first, and the particle comes second. As we have discussed in my article ‘Quantum Physics and Vedanta’ that the wave is nothing but the mental waves in the mind and the particle is nothing but the world out there. The mental waves in the mind collapses in the presence of the observer (atma) to become the physical world out there made up of particles.

Thus, quantum physics also show that subtle world made up of mental waves comes first and then these mental waves are converted to particles as the world ‘out there’. The mind projects the mental wave as the world out there.

  1. By using Neuroscience

Benjamin Libet, a well-known neuroscientist, conducted a wide variety of experiments over many years to show that something happens in the brain/mind complex first, before we are aware of it.

Experiment 1: A person touches a hot rod. The signal is transmitted to the brain in 100 milliseconds, the brain instructs the hand to remove it from the rod, this takes another 100 milliseconds. All this action takes place, but the person becomes aware of the pain caused by the hot rod only after 0.5 sec. So much is happening in the brain and we aware of it after the event has happened. This shows that there is fully functioning subtle universe in the mind which we are not aware of.

Experiment 2: A person’s brain is all wired up with electrodes and he is instructed to look at the clock and decide to press a button. When he decides to press the button, he makes a note of it on the clock. The experimenters found that it took 200 milliseconds to press the button after the person decided to press it. They also found that 300 milliseconds before this person took a decision to press the button; there was activity in the brain, the electrodes in the brain where lighting up. This suggests that in the subtle level the decision to press the button was made much earlier than the person’s awareness of having made the decision.

These experiments clearly show that activity takes place first in the mind and then in the physical world. What conclusion can we draw from this? The subtle universe in the mind comes first and then the physical universe. and not the other way around. Also, this subtle world controls and creates the physical world.

 Conclusion

We have just proven in different ways that there is no single universe ‘out there’. Each living being creates and projects their own universe. This may not be so easy to digest but this is the only truth. The only universe you know is what you project out there. It is impossible to know the universe other people are seeing. Everything is a projection from the mind. For this projection to work it is only correct that subtle objects come first, and this is converted to gross objects out there. Quantum physics and Libet’s experiments show that this what is happening. This clearly shows that what science has been teaching is inaccurate and incorrect and projection is the only truth.

Read my article ‘The Science behind the Projection of the Universe’ to see how the projection actually works.

Mind does not Move. What Moves?

Really, the mind does not move. It is the truth, but it seems so counter intuitive. We see people moving everywhere and we know each one of us has a mind. If people are moving, then the mind must also move. Correct? No this is incorrect.

In other articles we have discussed that the mind is outside the spacetime fabric. We know that the mind is t = 0 and it projects the spacetime fabric and the world out there. Your mind is at t = 0 and it projects the spacetime fabric and contents of the visible universe. I have my mind at t = 0 and my projection of the spacetime fabric and my visible universe. This applies to every living being who has a mind. The t = 0 is the ‘now’ moment and all the individual minds at this ‘now’ moment is at the same place, just outside the spacetime fabric.

It is only logical that the movement takes place in the spacetime fabric. Movement needs space. Without space there can be no movement. The mind is outside the spacetime fabric and therefore the movement of mind is impossible. Since there is no space outside the spacetime fabric, movement of the mind is impossible. It is therefore correct to conclude that the mind is fixed, and it does not move. Okay the mind is fixed and does not move, what about the body? The body is within the spacetime fabric. In fact, my body, your body is at the starting point of the spacetime fabric. If the mind is fixed, can the body move in the spacetime fabric? It is a good question and needs some logical thinking. One thing all of us are sure of is that, wherever we are, we always have our mind with us. We know we have a mind, and we know the mind is always with us. It is never separate from us. The body and mind are always together. I do not think any of us has a ‘out of body’ experience, with the body in one place the mind at another place. If this is right, it is only correct to conclude that the body and mind are inseparable. If the mind is fixed outside the spacetime fabric, the body even though is within the spacetime fabric, it must be fixed, it cannot not move.

Wow! So, the body/mind complex does not move, it is fixed. My body/mind complex is fixed, your body/mind complex is fixed and in the same way the body/mind complex of all living is fixed. If this is correct, how to explain the movement we undertake. We are rarely static and in the waking state, we are moving around quite a bit. A simple example will explain this. It is like what we have seen so many times in the movies. A movie scene which shows a car with a driver which is fixed, and the outdoor scenery is passing by. We in the audience feel that the car is moving, and the passing scenery is stationery This is an illusion which is created, and it seems very realistic. Is it possible this illusion takes place in real life also? We have just seen that the body/mind complex is fixed and everything else is moving. This illusion is exactly like what we see in movies about the stationary car with the moving background.

Is this possible? We do not feel it. We feel, we are moving, while external objects like trees, houses, lamppost are fixed. We need to understand this because we have discussed that the body/mind complex is fixed and does not move. So how to explain, the trees, houses and lamppost are moving, while the body/mind complex is fixed. To get a proper understanding of this, we need to understand the Einstein theory of special relativity and some basic concepts of Vedanta.

Theory of Special Relativity:

If you understand the Einstein theory of special relativity, you will see that there is a connection between motion and time. There are two cars, if one driver is driving at 60 mph and other person at 55 mph, they will experience a relative speed of 5 mph. This is true for any relative motion we experience. Unfortunately, we don’t have this experience with reference to speed of light. Light is travelling at 186,000 miles per sec and suppose you are traveling in a car at 60% of the speed of light. Sitting in the car, you would logically expect the light to travel at only 40% of its usual speed, but if you take measurements you will find to your amazement that light is still travelling at 186k miles per sec. The same applies if you increase the speed of the car to 80% of speed of light or slow down to 30% of the speed of light. The speed of light is fixed at 186,000 miles per hour irrespective of the frame of reference.

What has happened is that time has slowed down so that light still covers 186K miles in one second. Since time has slowed down, the space of 186K miles will be smaller as compared to earlier. The space is still 186k, but the measuring ruler has shrunk, so the space measurement is still 186K. Amazing but true. If you increase the speed of the car to 80% of speed of light, time will slow down further, and space will further contract. If you now slow down to 30% of the speed of light, space will now expand. All this is done to ensure that the speed of light is a constant at 186,000 miles per sec. This expansion and contraction of spacetime also happens even when walking or running. However, the speed at which you walk, or run is so slow when compared to the speed of light that you are unable to notice, but the changes to the space time framework are always occurring. This mean motion and time are interconnected. As speed of motion goes up, time slows down. If you reach the speed of light, time will not move, it will be fixed.

Time and Motion

From the theory of special relativity, we can conclude that the motion and time are interconnected. When motion speed increases, then the time slows down. It seems motion comes first and then the time slow down. Motion is the cause and the slowdown of time is the effect. Is this the correct interpretation? I don’t think so. Motion is gross, we see motion everywhere. In contrast time is subtle – you cannot see it, touch it or feel it. Time is present in the mind as a mental wave. This wave has the power to create Time. It is quite difficult for us to understand or visualize the composition of this waveform, but one thing is certain that Time is subtle and therefore it is a waveform and is present in everyone’s mind.

Vedanta teaches us that subtle mental waves comes first, and the subtle waveforms is the cause for the gross world around us. The subtle waveform projects the physical world out there. If you apply this reasoning, time must come first, and the time waveform is the cause for motion. So, the correct way to interpret the connection between motion and time is that when time slows down, then motion is created. Not the other way around.

When time slows down, it is only logical to expect the objects would be closer to the fixed observer. The physics equation s = v*t will support this. When time t is a smaller value, the distance s will be smaller, meaning it is closer to the fixed observer. This means there is motion of the object by slowing of time. Before the slowdown of time, the objects were at a certain distance. By slowing down of time, the objects have moved closer to the fixed observer. The objects have moved, meaning there is motion. This is exactly what is happening, the body/mind complex is fixed, and by slowing down of time, the external objects move closer giving a sense of motion. It is not easy to understand how a tree or house, or a lamppost uproots itself and moves closer. As explained in ‘Life is a Living Wave’ or the ‘Construction of the Universe’, that the physical world is a projection of the mind. If this is understood, it is easier to understand that the external objects can move closer. The external objects are nothing but a projection of the mind.

It is like having a potentiometer for time in the mind. Move this potentiometer and slow down time, this will bring the objects closer to the fixed body/mind, giving a sense of motion. Just like in the movies, we feel the car is moving in relation to the external objects. In the same way, we have the illusion that body/mind complex is moving in relation to the external objects. Actually, the body/mind complex does not move.

So, time controls motion and not the other way around. Time is the cause for motion. Increase or decrease the time factor in the mind, the resulting motion (or speed) of the objects will change in the physical world. Time is also the cause for the spacetime fabric expansion or contraction. Increase or decrease the time, space time fabric will also expand or contract. This corroborates the Einstein theory of special relativity.

A good way to corelate this with our daily experience is with the navigation system we use in the car. We see the map and the car is moving in the map. What if the car is fixed and the map keeps moving to give a sense of movement and motion. In real life this is what is happening. The body/mind complex is fixed and does not move. If the body/mind complex wants to move, it slows down time in the mind. When this is done, the map of the universe out there starts moving closer to the fixed body/mind complex giving a sense of motion. Slow down the time potentiometer further, the objects will come closer to the observer more quickly, giving a sense of increased speed of motion. Increase or decrease the time factor will increase or decrease the speed to motion. This is how motion and speed are managed in this world. Time is the king.

One may ask this question – if the body/mind complex is fixed, how come we see and perceive so many bodies (human + living being) moving around us? This is a good question, but it must be understood that the bodies of living being we see out there are memory objects and not ‘now’ objects. If you are standing in front of me, I see a memory object of you. It is not a ‘now’ object but a memory object which is a dated version of you. Why? Light takes some finite time to reach me, so it means that I see a dated version of you, which I call is a memory object. In the same way you will see a dated version of me standing in front you. Everything in the world out there is made up of memory objects only. As we have discussed in the post ‘Unity of Minds’, all the minds, your mind, my mind and everyone’s mind are at t = 0 which is the ‘now’ location. The memory objects are out there, but the mind is at t = 0 which is within each one of us. In other words, there is no mind within the memory objects we see out there, the mind is within us at t = 0. For me, I have my body/mind complex which does not move, but all the memory objects move around me. In the same way, your body/complex does not move but the memory objects will move. This logic will apply to all living beings.

Next time you go for a walk or drive in a car, you should imagine that you are not moving, but the objects around you are moving closer. This is the only reality. The theory of special relativity supports this by showing the connection between time and motion.

Unity of Minds

We know each one of us has a mind. According to Vedanta, the mind is the subtle body and it is made up of thoughts, perceptions, feeling and emotions. In the same way, we have a gross body, which is the physical body we possess. There is no denying each one of us is physically separated in space. Your gross body is there, my gross body is here and in the same way everyone is at a separate location in space. Yes, the physical body is separated in space. What about the mind? You will be surprised to learn that all the minds in this universe at this ‘moment’ are at one location only. Shocking but true! Your mind, my mind and everyone’s mind at this ‘moment’ is at one location only. There is unity of minds.

The only way to understand this is to think differently. Don’t think about space or distance but think in terms of time. This is the key to understand this concept. We have seen in other articles that the mind is always at t = 0. Your mind, my mind and every mind are always at t = 0. We know t = 0 is the ‘now’ moment. So, for the ‘now’ moment, there is unity among everyone’s mind. It does not matter where your body is in space, but for the ‘now’ moment there is unity of all the minds. All the minds are at one spot (time wise), which is outside the spacetime fabric. The mind never moves, it is always at t= 0, it is always outside the spacetime fabric. The body moves, and it operates in the space time fabric. There is always a ‘now’ moment, therefore the unity of all the minds is always maintained. We have seen in other articles that the t = 0 or the ‘now’ moment is within each one of us. This means at this ‘now’ moment, your mind, the entire cosmic mind which includes all the minds is present within us. Can you guess the number of individual minds in this universe? I think it is countless. Imagine the population of humans, animals, creatures, plants etc. To this you can add life in other planets. All these countless minds are within us at t = 0 or the ‘now’ moment. Wow – what a feeling!

If your friend is sitting in front of you. His physical body may be in front of you, but his mind is within you. Your friend will also have the same experience. He will see your physical body in the front, but your mind is also within him. If there 10 people sitting in the same room, each one of them will have the same experience. Each of them will see the 9 physical bodies out there, but all the 10 minds will be within each one of them at t = 0.

How to understand this? We have discussed elsewhere that the physical universe out there is made of ‘memory’ objects only. This means that all objects out there are dated stuff, they are no ‘now’ objects in the physical universe. Why? Because it takes lights some finite time to reach us. So, we always see the dated version of the object. We know light takes 8 min to reach us from the sun. The sun we see is an 8 min old sun, it is not the ‘now’ version of the sun. In the same way, the moon we see is a 3 second old moon, the tree out the window maybe some milliseconds old, the computer in front of you maybe some nanoseconds old. There is nothing which is ‘now’ in the physical universe. We have seen that the mind resides outside the spacetime fabric, it is t=0. Therefore, from your point of view the person in front of you is a memory object, but his mind is at t = 0 which is within you. The person in front of you will have a similar experience. He will see a memory object of you, but your mind which is at t = 0 is within him. This will apply to each living being in the universe. Basically, each person creates their own universe on the spacetime fabric and this fabric starts with the individual mind.

In the article ‘Life is Living Wave’ we have explained that there is a fully functioning subtle universe, which is made of waveforms. This waveform of the objects in the universe is available to the cosmic mind and individual minds. The waveform of all the objects is within the cosmic mind, but a subset of this will be available in the individual minds.    

Once the unity of all the minds is properly understood, then the interaction of the mind with the universe waveform becomes clear. All the minds are at one place and the subset of the universe waveform is present in the individual minds at t =0. The subset waveform would depend upon what each mind is watching. Once the waveform in each mind comes in the presence of the ‘Observer’, the waveform collapses in every mind and then each mind projects their own spacetime fabric and the physical world (depending upon the waveform being watched) out there. Space is created with the collapsing of the waveform. Your body, my body and all the objects being viewed are placed at different locations in space. It must be understood, all the minds are still at t = 0, it has not moved. From your viewpoint, you are always carrying the both the mind and body. Where ever you go, the t = 0 is still with you. All the people you see, they are all memory objects and their minds are within you. All the people will have the same experience, their mind and all the minds are within them and all the people around them are memory objects.

It is interesting to note that the Observer or Sakshi is common for all the minds. There is no separate Observer for each mind, but One Observer for all the minds. All the minds are at same spot at t = 0, the single Observer collapses all the waves simultaneously in each mind and watches all the minds simultaneously. What can one say – this is sheer magic, this is the power of Awareness! Vedanta calls this Maya shakti.  

As a conclusion there is complete unity of minds, all the minds of every living being are at the same spot outside the spacetime fabric. Each mind projects and creates their own universe.  

Construction of Objects

The best way to start this discussion is to understand the popular Vedanta metaphor of Pot/Clay. We know the clay pot comes in many different sizes, shapes and designs. Some are tall, some are short, some are round, some are square etc. There seems to be an unlimited possibility for shapes and sizes. If you study all the clay pots carefully you will see that each clay pot has the following two components – Content and Form. So, which part is the content and which part is the from? The answer is obvious, the clay is the content and the pot is a form on the clay. With different shapes and sizes, the form of the pot could vary, but the content of all pots will always be clay.

Clay Pot = Clay (content) + Pot (form)

In the same way, we can say the following about the gold chain and wooden chairs

  • Gold chain = Gold (content) + Chain (form)
  • Wooden chair = Wood (content) + Chair (form)

A simple question – in the wooden chair, what is the weight of the wood which is the content and what is weight of the chair which is a form? The answer is obvious, the wood has all the weight and chair has no weight. Another question – can you separate the chair form from the wood content? The answer it is impossible to separate the chair form from the wood content. They are inseparable. If everything in the wooden chair is wood, what is the chair form? This is not a simple question. It would seem the chair form is an idea or concept which has been superimposed on the wood. Whose ideas? The idea will normally belong to the designer of the chair. In other words, the designer’s knowledge is superimposed on the wood.

These Vedantic metaphors can help us understand the underlying components for every object in this physical universe. it would seem every object in the universe must have the following two components

  1. Content
  2. Form.

There is an unlimited number of objects both living and nonliving in this universe. We have seen in the examples discussed, the substratum of the objects is always the content and form is superimposed on the content. Does this apply to every object in the universe? Logically this principle must apply to all the objects in the universe. Content is content, and it should make up the entire object. You cannot have a wooden chair, in which half the chair is made up of wood and the other half is made up of nothing. This is impossible, the entire wooden chair must be made up of wood. This logic must apply to every object in this universe. Every object has content and this content makes up the entire object. The answer which is not clear – do all the objects have the same content or different objects have different content. This is especially true because of the wide variety of objects in this universe.

Every object has a form and this form is superimposed on the content. The form is something, it is not nothing. We see the form, we feel the form, in some cases we hear or taste the form. So, what is this form? What is its source?

There are many questions about the Content and Form of all objects. In the coming sections we will discuss this further so that we get a good understanding on the construction of the objects.

What is the Content Made up off?

From our earlier discussion the content for the clay pot is clay, for gold chain it is gold and the wooden chair it is wood. This would suggest that the content for every object could be different. Is this correct? This is incorrect – firstly, the examples given where a metaphor only to explain the concept of content and form. Secondly, we know that gold, clay and wood are all made up of atoms and a full array of sub-atomic particles. They all have an inner layer of sub-atomic particles. Trying to find out the source of the content by investigating the sub-atomic particles is not very helpful and does not yield positive results.

So, what is the Content for all the objects in the universe? We need a different and novel approach. Science has not been helpful, so we must look elsewhere. But, where? The proper understanding of Vedanta can be helpful. There is so much to learn from Vedanta, the ideas, concepts and teaching from Vedanta can be solve many of the shortcoming of science.

As a starter question – how do we know an object exists? The answer is that we are aware of the object. We see it, we know it, we can touch it.

How do we know the tree is green? Because we are aware of it.

How do we know sugar is sweet? Because we are aware of it.

How do we know we have two legs and two hands? Because we are aware of it.

How do we know the weight of the chair is 20 lbs.? Because we are aware of it.

How do we know the smooth touch of silk? Because we are aware of it.

How do we know we are listening to music? Because we are aware of it.

The common thread to all these questions is Awareness. It would seem Awareness is a prerequisite to observe any object. Without awareness, we would not know any objects which are perceived by the 5 senses – eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin. These objects from the sensory organs must encounter Awareness, then only we can observe the object.  For an analogy, think of the sun. When there is no light from the sun, you cannot see anything, but in the presence of the light everything becomes visible. In the same way when any form which comes in the presence of the light of Awareness, we become aware of the object. If there is no light of Awareness, you will perceive nothing.

So, what is Awareness and what does Awareness have to do with the content of the object? Everything. Awareness is the content of all the objects in the universe. The content of the objects from the 5 senses is Awareness only. To any newcomer, Awareness is just another English word, with a dictionary meaning ‘knowledge or perception of a situation or fact’. Awareness is much more than an English word.

Awareness is the most powerful force in the universe and it is the underlying reality of this universe. It has the power to connect with a form present in the mind and fill up the object with Awareness. If you analyze Awareness, you will conclude that the Awareness is made up of a Subject, Intelligence and Object with the following functions

  1. There must be a Subject, who is Aware of the experience. This subject is the knower of the Awareness
  2. There must be an Object, which must be experienced. This object is the known part of the Awareness
  3. There must be Intelligence by which the subject gets to know the object. This is the knowing part of the Awareness

Knower, Known and Knowing/Intelligence are the 3 powers of Awareness. It must be clear that

  • Awareness = Subject + Object + Intelligence
  • Power of Awareness = Power of Knower + Power of Knowing + Power of Known

Awareness is made of Subject, Intelligence and Object and it has three different powers – Knower, Knowing and Known. It must be understood that the Subject, Intelligence and Object and the three powers are not something outside in the world, but they are within Awareness and make up Awareness. If any one of them is missing, the awareness will not work, and will be incomplete.

  • If there is an object to be observed, but there is no subject, there will be no awareness, as there is no one to see the object.
  • If there is a subject, but no object to see, there will no awareness as the subject has no objects to observe
  • If there is an object, but the subject has no way of knowing what this object is, no awareness will take place. This knowing must have intelligence.

Wherever there is awareness, the Subject Intelligence and Object must be present with all the three powers. To understand how the content of every object in this universe is Awareness only, we need to understand the Power of the Known

Power of Known

Power of Known is power within Awareness. It is power which deals with objects. It deals with the objects received from the 5 senses. The better way to understand Power of Known is that it is a power to become any object. This power does not create any objects but becomes the object which is superimposed by the 5 senses on this power.

If you see a round circle, then awareness cannot take shape of a square. If it does, you will never experience the round circle. Awareness must also be a round circle with the same exact dimensions. If you see a tree, then awareness must also take the shape of the tree. This tree must be filled up with Awareness. If the tree is half filled with awareness or the awareness does not have the same shape as the tree, you will not be aware of the tree.

If you want to observe any object with form:

  1. The form must be filled with Awareness and nothing but Awareness. If the form does not have Awareness, then observer or subject will not be able to experience the object with that form.
  2. The Awareness must take the exact shape of the form.

It is therefore correct to conclude that the content of the object must be Awareness. Awareness by itself is formless, but it has the potential to become any object. The object it will become depends up on the input received from the 5 senses. A good metaphor to explain this is that it is like a lump of playdoh which is formless, but you can manipulate the playdoh to any shape. Whatever shape you create, the content is always playdoh. In the same way, the content of all the objects in the universe is only Awareness. It can take any shape or form, but the content is always Awareness.

Next time you see a tree, or listen to music or feel the cold water, you must be clear that the tree, music or water is made up only by Awareness and nothing but Awareness. It is content of every object.

What is the Form Made up off?

We now know the Content of any object is Awareness. So what is the Form of the object made off? What is the source of the Form? To understand this properly, you need to understand how the mind functions. As we have discussed in other articles, the mind is made up of mental waves or Vrittis. The ingredient of these waves is knowledge and intelligence. These waves come into the mind from the 5 input or sensory organs – eye, nose, tongue, ear and skin. These intelligent mental waves are the bases of the Form. When these intelligent waveforms come in touch with Awareness and it superimposes itself on Awareness to become the form of the objects we see in the physical world. The content is Awareness, but the form comes from the 5 senses. The waves from the ear, become the sound form we hear. The waves from the eyes becomes the form of the objects we see. The waves from the tongue becomes the taste form we feel. In the same way, smell and touch also function using the input wave from the nose and skin.

We saw in the earlier metaphors, clay is the only content in the clay pot. The pot is only a form which is superimposed on the clay. In the same way, Awareness is the only Content for all the objects and the Form comes from the 5 senses which is superimposed on Awareness.

This may be true, why don’t we feel that the content is Awareness with our daily interaction with objects? This is because our attention is always focused on the Form part of the object and in the process, we ignore the Content part. As an example, if you go to a furniture shop, our attention is always focused on the different designs of furniture. I like this design, I do not like this design. This design will look nice in the house. The focus is on the form part of the furniture and not on the content part. Our focus on Form of the object is so deep rooted that we do not know and understand that the Awareness is the only Content for all objects. If you think about it, even science has been focusing exclusively on the Form part of the object. They have been investigating the Form part of the object and they have made great strides by discovering all the different inner layers of the Form. Molecules, atoms and all the sub-atomic particles. The problem is that Science has been investigating the Form of the objects, but they want to discover the Content of the Object. They are not going to find Awareness by smashing sub-atomic particles in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). They are working at the wrong end of the object. They are working with the Form part of the object and not the Content part of the object.

Actually, you do not have to hunt for Awareness, it is hiding in plain sight. If you see an object, Awareness is already present in that object. It is right in front of you. You are already aware of the object. Next time you see an object, do not focus on the Form, but focus on the fact that you are aware of the object. If you do this regularly you will realize that Awareness is everywhere, and objects are just a skin on top of Awareness.

Karma Yoga

How Do We Perform Karmas?

It must be understood that all karmas or action happen in the Mind itself. It is part of nature when the Ego comes in contact with the Object Vritti, the Ego MUST make a response. The Ego either likes the situation or dislikes the situation. This duality of Raga/Devesha, like/dislike, good/bad is the underlying force that compels the Ego to do Karmas. Every beings has to react to every situation. They cannot remain still.

The interaction between Ego and Object is NOT Karma, it is the response of Like or Dislike which is Karma.

  • People think that when we talk it is karma. This is incorrect; talking is natural. However if you talk positively or negatively about anyone, only then you have done a good or bad Karma.
  • Watching the physical world is natural. However, if you make a judgment, what a horrible shirt someone is wearing, or how nice this person is looking, these judgment calls are Karmas.

Every good or bad karma done must yield fruits either immediate or later on. Because of this we have an infinite amount of pending karmas from this and previous births and we are trapped in this never ending cycle of rebirths. What is the solution? The first step is Karma Yoga.

Prerequisites to Karma Yoga

In order to practice Karma Yoga, we must have the required prerequisites.

  1. Living with Positive Values

Many people lead this type of life, they may think they are leading a life of Karma Yoga. This is not Karma Yoga, but a minimum prerequisite for Karma Yoga.

  1. Living with Dharma

Leading a life of Dharma is the essential and a key prerequisite for your spiritual growth.

 

Attitudes of Karma Yoga

We’ll summarize some of the key teachings from Bhagavad Gita.

  1. Karma Phala Data

Who gives the Fruits of our Actions? Understanding this is the core value of Karma Yoga. Chapter 2, Verse 47 explains this concept brilliantly.

“You have the authority or control on the action you do, but you have no authority or control on the results of the action”

This is a profound and universal truth. We can only do action, but we have no choice or control over the results. This sounds like an obvious statement to make.  But how often do we undertake any action without any expectation of what the result will be?

The BG teaches that it is Ishwara who decides the results. Does that mean Ishwara is judgmental? No. Ishwara has a Will but it has no Ragas and Dveshas. Ishwara’s Will is the Law of Nature. Once these laws are set in motion, Ishwara does not do anything. Good actions will results in Punya Karma phalas and bad actions will results in Papa Karma phalas. This devotional attitude, this is the first right step in Karma Yoga.

  1. Prasada Buddhi

Even if you accept Ishwara to be the Karma Phala Data, it is not easy to accept the results. If the outcome of any action is not as per our expectation it causes frustration. Negative emotions dominate. We usually want things our way. This inner conflict is the major source of turmoil in the mind.

How to overcome these shortcomings? Karma Yoga teaches the concept of Prasada Buddhi. When we go a temple the priest will give us a Prasada which has been blessed by Ishwara. We receive this with humility, respect and love. In life too, we should receive the results of our actions as if we have received a Prasada from Ishwara.  We accept the results of all our actions with humility, gratitude and love. This attitude of acceptance is called Prasada Buddhi.

  1. Gaining Equanimity

Once you understand that Ishwara is the Karma Phala Data, and that everything that you receive in life is a Prasada, we should be able accept the results of our actions with equanimity. This is easier said than done. On the surface, we may accept the outcomes, but deep down we are still unhappy of bad results. So how do we cultivate equanimity?

The easiest way to cultivate this attitude is to elevate our motivation factor or upgrade our attachment to spiritual growth. What does this mean? Think of the various attachments you have formed as you journeyed through life – as kids we were attached to toys, then as we grew up we formed new attachments, like reading books or playing sports. As you can see, when we get a new attachment, the previous attachment is reduced or disappears. If this is correct, we should change our lifestyle and make spiritual growth our primary focus of attachment. This way we can accept negative or positive outcomes with equanimity because we are no longer attached to these expectations. A devotional or spiritual life style is the only way you can gain equanimity in life.

  1. Arpana Buddhi

Arpana Buddhi is the attitude of offering our actions to Ishwara. Both Prasada Buddhi and Arpana Buddhi are complementary. One is receiving and the other is giving.

To understand Arpana Buddhi you have to understand the concept of Yagna in ancient India. Yagna were conducted for thanking Ishwara for the blessings received. The main motivation is to thank Ishwara and acknowledge that everything happens because of Ishwara. The rains are because of Ishwara, the heart beating without resting is a blessing from Ishwara. There is nothing in the universe which is not due to Ishwara. Yagnas was one way of ‘paying back’ for all the blessings received in life.

Everything belongs to Ishwara. So what is it that you can really offer Ishwara? The only thing you can offer is your actions. This is Arpana Buddhi. You do all actions as a dedication to Ishwara, you offer your actions with love and affection to Ishwara. Any action is done with a prayerful attitude, even mundane daily activities. If you are offering all your actions to Ishwara, there is little chance that you will act against Dharma.

All your actions (Arpana Buddhi) are done with a prayerful attitude and, all results thereof are also to be accepted (Prasada Buddhi) with a prayerful attitude. This is the core of Karma Yoga. If you can cultivate this attitude, we can lead a more peaceful and calm life. Another key benefit of Karma Yoga is that our mind is purified so that we can assimilate the ultimate Knowledge more easily to achieve Moksha.

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Understanding Photons

A Photon is unique; it has both wave like and particle like properties. It is the only particle in the universe which travels at the speed of light – 186,000 miles per sec. According to science it is physically impossible for anything to travel at the speed of light, because it will require infinite amount of energy to push something to achieve the speed of light. Infinite means infinite, therefore it is just impossible to achieve the speed of light for any object. At the Large Hardon Collider in CERN, Switzerland, it has been possible to achieve 99.999% of the speed of light – achieving 100% seems impossible.

This really makes you wonder- if it is impossible to achieve the speed of light how come the photons achieve this speed so easily, and to top it all, they seem to be everywhere in the universe. Anything traveling at the speed of light must have infinite energy or mass, but photons zero mass.   If you apply the tool kit of the special theory of relativity to the photon, the implications are profound and breathtaking.  Let us talk about this now

Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity

The Theory of Special Relativity deals with Space and Time. It is based on the fact that the speed of light is fixed at c = 186,000 miles per second irrespective of the frame of reference. We all experience relative speed. Going in a car at 60mph, we look into another car traveling in the same direction at 55mph, and we see things inside the other car because the relative speed is only 5mph. We don’t have this experience with reference to the speed of light. Light is travelling at 186,000 miles per sec and suppose you are traveling in a car at 60% of the speed of light. Sitting in the car, you would logically expect the light to travel at only 40% of its usual speed, but if you take measurements you will find to your amazement that light is still travelling at 186k miles per sec. The same applies if you increase the speed of the car to 80% of speed of light or slow down to 30% of the speed of light. The speed of light is fixed at 186,000 miles per hour irrespective of the frame of reference

To explain the implications of this theory, Einstein provided a thought experiment, as it was impossible for cars or rockets to reach speeds anywhere close to the speed of light.

You are on earth and your twin brother goes into space in a rocket. You both have the top of the range atomic clocks. Your twin brother’s rocket is traveling at the speed of 0.8c. You at earth measure the speed of the light, you find it be c, your twin brother also measures the speed of light, he will also find the speed to be c. How come? The clock in the rocket slows down and his ruler in the rocket gets compressed and is much shorter so that the speed of light is still c. His spacetime framework is more compressed, but the speed of light is still c. Your twin brother returns to earth. Your clock shows he travelled for 10 years, while his clock shows he travelled for 6 years only.

Your twin brother goes on another trip and now he increases his speed to 0.9999c. He measures the speed of light and he still finds it to be c, the same as you will find on earth. His clock will be running very slowly as compared to your clock on earth. He returns after 50 days according his clock. Your clock on earth will show he has travelled for 10 years. Amazing stuff! His spacetime is extremely compressed.

Here’s an addition to the Einstein thought experiment. Your twin brother enjoys being in space. He goes back for another trip, and now his rocket travels at the speed of light c. He is tries to measure the speed of light, but he is unable to do so. Light travels at c and his rocket is also traveling at speed c, both are going in parallel to each other speed wise. To make a measurement you need light to bounce of an object, but if the rocket and light are going at the same speed, it is impossible to take this measurement. When he returns to earth, your clock shows he has travelled for 10 years, he will find his clock is at a standstill, no time has passed for him. Also, according to him he has covered no distance. You aged 10 years; he felt he did not go anywhere, both time wise and distance wise and therefore did not age at all.

Now replace the rocket and the twin brother with a photon. The photon will have the same experience as your twin brother travelling at speed of light c in a rocket. Here’s what you could say the photon “experienced” the following according to the special theory of relativity.

  • Distance travelled by photon = 0
  • Time experienced by photon = 0 or standstill
  • Energy content of photon = infinity. The formulae for the Lorenz Transformation will confirm this.

What is your experience as an observer stationed on earth tracking a photon traveling for 10 years?

  • Distance traveled by photon = 10 light years
  • Time travelled by photon = 10 years
  • Mass of photon = 0
  • Speed of light = c

According to the photon, it feels it is at a standstill not covering any distance. However, the observer feels the photon is covering a large distance traveling at the speed of light. How do we interpret this information? Based on the information we have understood, we can make the following important conclusions

  1. The photon travels only in the presence of the observer. If there is no observer, then the photon remains at a standstill. An observer is a prerequisite for the photon to travel. In our earlier discussions we have mentioned that the only observer in this universe is the Atma, which is the underlying reality of you, me and every living being. So, whenever a photon comes in the presence of Awareness in any mind – your mind, my mind or the cosmic mind, the photon becomes conscious and then and only then we are aware of the photon. It is this photon which zips around at the speed of light. The perception must take place in the mind first, only then it is possible for the photon to be observed in the physical world. It is this basic reason, why the perception process as taught by Vedanta is the only correct way to understand the phenomenon.

 

  1. From the photon’s perspective, it is at standstill in time and covers no distance. If time does not move for the photon, it must be outside time and it must be beyond the spacetime framework. If it was within the spacetime framework, time for the photon must change. What does this really mean? Anything beyond time must be in a dormant condition; it could also be called un-manifest condition. What is the “un-manifest” condition? According to Vedanta, it is in its potential form, just like a tree is in an un-manifest, potential condition within a seed. The physical tree still has not come out, but the tree is there in a potential form in the seed. So only a tree will manifest from this seed and nothing else. The photon is also in the same potential form. What potential form does the photon represent? The universe is the “potential” within the photon.

 

  1. Where does the photon reside in its un-manifest condition? Since the un-manifest photon is beyond the space time frame work and as we explained earlier that the Atma is always beyond time. It is only logical conclude that the un-manifest photon exists within Atma, which is unchanging, limitless, without boundaries. Since Atma is present in everyone, including in you, therefore the un-manifest photon is present within you, within your true reality of Atma. You, as an individual person, do not feel or realize this, because, like everyone else, you are ignorant of your own true nature.

 

  1. We saw earlier that according to the observer, the energy level or mass of the photon is zero, but according to the photon, the energy level of the photon is infinite. This photon with infinite energy is lying dormant within the Observer or Atma in an un-manifest condition. Now there is no infinite energy, there is only a potential for infinite energy. Whenever the Observer/Atma has the desire to view the universe, this un-manifest photon will come into the observer’s mind, this photon will become conscious and then it will manifest to become the universe we see around us. This manifested universe will have infinite energy.

We know from studying Vedanta that Atma/Brahman is the underlying reality of you and of the universe. It is the Observer of your mind and it is beyond the space time framework. We have also analyzed that from the photon’s point of view, the photon remains in an un-manifest condition in your Atma. When this photon enters your mind, it becomes conscious and manifests itself.

 

Energy which makes up this Universe

Photons, from their own standpoint, are in an un-manifest condition. They are in their potential state. The potential form of the photon represents the universe; it is not one photon, but a collection of all the photons in the universe.  A good analogy would be that the potential form is like software code that represents all aspects of the universe. Just like the software needs a CPU to manifest itself, the potential form of the photon needs a mind to manifest itself.

When the un-manifest photon meets our minds, it manifests itself and becomes a Vritti, which is like a mental wave within the mind. These mental waves or vrittis are the same as the probability waves which are explained by quantum physics, they are so similar in their functionality. We know from quantum mechanics that the probability waves collapse in the presence of the observing system. In the same way the mental waves of the photon collapse in the presence of Atma, which is the observing system in our minds. Maya Shakti then projects this collapsed wave function as the visible physical universe we see around us.

Put in simple terms, the universe is a manifestation of just the photon. In its un-manifest form, the photon had a potential for infinite energy. This infinite energy is now unleashed into the entire universe.

Types of Energy in the Universe

As we have seen, the photon is the only particle in the universe which travels at the speed of light.  If we apply the theory of special relativity to the photon, the photon will feel it does not travel any distance, that time is at a standstill and that it has an infinite amount of energy. In the presence of the observer or from the point of view of the observer, the picture is very different, infinite energy is distributed all over the world and photons are zooming around the universe at the speed of light.

The photon has an infinite amount of energy, but this finite universe can use only a finite amount of energy. You as an observer can only see a part of the universe and therefore only a finite amount of energy is required. I am guessing that the unused energy of the photon remains in an un-manifest condition.

It must be clearly understood that the only energy available in the universe is the energy provided by photons.

A photon in a wave form is also known as an Electromagnetic Energy Wave (EMV). The known spectrum of light starts from Radio waves (300 Khz) to Gamma rays (3 x 1021) Hz. This spectrum of energy covers the universe. It is the source for everything. All objects are made up of energy and this energy comes with the manifestation of the photon in the presence of the observer or Atma.

The energy described above is the physical or visible energy. Keeping the size of the universe and estimating the number of galaxies, cosmologists have estimated the composition of the universe in this way –

  • Dark energy – 79%
  • Dark matter – 26%
  • Visible Matter – 5%

Only 5% of the energy is used to create the visible galaxies. We must note that 73% of the visible universe is made of hydrogen, 23% Helium and 2% is made of the remaining elements. The cosmologist still has no clue what this dark energy/matter is. They have not seen it nor identified it. It’s just an assumption to explain how the energy needed to fuel the expansion of the universe is “created”.

Dark energy, Dark matter and the Visible Matter, all have the roots in the infinite energy source of the photons in the un-manifested Atma.

Understanding Motion

Motion is part of our daily life. We see motion or movement everywhere. What causes this motion? How does this motion happen? You will be surprised, it is completely opposite to our conventional understanding.

Frame of Reference:

If there are two cars next to each other and travelling in the same direction at 60 mph, they will not experience any motion with respect to each other. They will feel they are stationery. They will feel motion if they pass a stationery person standing on the roadside. If one driver is driving at 60 mph and another person at 55 mph. They will only experience a speed of 5 mph. To explain this, physics teaches us that there are two frames of references. One frame of reference is the observer and other frame of reference is the object. If both the reference frames move at the same speed, there will be no relative motion, if they are not moving at the same speed, motion will be experienced.

Motion has a knack of playing tricks with us. There are two stationery trains in a platform. You are sitting in one of them. The other train starts moving, why do we feel that we are moving, and the other train is stationery. The observer frame is stationery and the object frame is moving, but we feel that the object frame is stationery and the observer frame is moving with respect with the object frame. We look through the other side window and then realize we are stationery and the other train is moving. If there were no windows on the other side, we would really think we are moving. If there is no other frame of reference except the other train, we would really think we are moving. The conclusion is that if there are only two frames of references, then both the frame of references thinks they are moving with respect with the other reference frame.

Apply this logic to our daily life. We are walking towards some trees. Are we really walking towards the trees or we are stationery and the tree are coming towards us? The idea we are stationery and trees are coming moving towards us is a possibility based on the frame of references we discussed for the trains at the platform. But can this be true? Yes, it is true, and it is the only truth. It is difficult to digest this, how can the trees move, they seem so stationery.

The teachings of Vedanta can help us in this regard. We have seen in the other articles at our website, that the Observer, which is Awareness is within each one of us. This Observer is outside the spacetime fabric and is always t = 0. This Observer is not the body or mind and is always stationery and never moves. It cannot move because it is outside the spacetime fabric. If the Observer frame is always fixed, it is only logical that the trees are moving closer to us to give a sense of motion. But how can the trees and other such fixed objects in the universe move? As we have discussed in our article ‘Life is Living Wave’ that there is a fully functioning subtle universe made up of mental waves which is operating in the mind. These subtle mental waves are then projected out there as the physical world.

Based on this, there are subtle waveforms of the tree in our mind. In some way (which is discussed later), the subtle waveform of the tree moves closer to the fixed Observer in the mind. When this happens, the projected physical tree will now be closer to the Observer. Since the physical tree has moved to be closer to the fixed observer, there is a sense of motion or movement of the tree. We do not feel this, we feel the tree is fixed and we have moved closer to the tree. This is exactly the same way you feel your fixed train is moving as compared to the other train in the platform. This is the grand deception of motion, played by Maya shakti.

The Observer frame is always stationery and the movement of the object frame gives the impression of motion for the Observer frame. So, how does the object frame really move? What is the cause for the object frame to move? To understand this, we need to discuss the Einstein theory of special reactivity.

Theory of Special Relativity:

If you understand the Einstein theory of special relativity, you will see that there is a connection between motion and time. We just saw if one driver is driving at 60 mph and other person at 55 mph, they will experience a relative speed of 5 mph. We don’t have this experience with reference to the speed of light. Light is travelling at 186,000 miles per sec and suppose you are traveling in a car at 60% of the speed of light. Sitting in the car, you would logically expect the light to travel at only 40% of its usual speed, but if you take measurements you will find to your amazement that light is still travelling at 186k miles per sec. The same applies if you increase the speed of the car to 80% of speed of light or slow down to 30% of the speed of light. The speed of light is fixed at 186,000 miles per hour irrespective of the frame of reference.

What has happened is that time has slowed down so that light still covers 186K miles in one second. Since time has slowed down, the space of 186K miles will be smaller as compared to earlier. The space is still 186k, but the measuring ruler has shrunk, so the space measurement is still 186K. Amazing but true. If you increase the speed of the car to 80% of speed of light, time will slow down further, and space will further contract. If you now slow down to 30% of the speed of light, space will now expand. All this is done to ensure that the speed of light is a constant at 186,000 miles per sec. This expansion and contraction of spacetime also happens even when walking or running. However, the speed at which you walk, or run is so slow when compared to the speed of light that you are unable to notice, but the changes to the space time framework are always occurring.

  • This mean motion and time are interconnected. As speed of motion goes up, time slows down. If you reach the speed of light, time will not move, it will be fixed.
  • Suppose Person A is sitting in a chair, Person B is walking, Person C is running, Person D is cycling, and Person E is driving a car; all of them are moving at different speeds; this would mean that each of them will have their own separate spacetime framework.
  • From the above, it would seem the time clock of each moving person is different. This means that the atoms are vibrating differently for each person. If atoms are vibrating differently, the object makeup will be different. In other words, each person is not only having a separate spacetime framework, but all the objects in that spacetime framework are different.

Time and Motion

From the theory of special relativity, we can conclude that the motion and time are interconnected. When motion speed increases, then the time slows down. It seems motion comes first and then the time slow down. Motion is the cause and the slowdown of time is the effect. Is this the correct interpretation? I don’t think so. Motion is gross, we see motion everywhere. In contrast time is subtle – you cannot see it, touch it or feel it. Time is present in the mind as a mental wave. This wave has the power to create Time. It is quite difficult for us to understand or visualize the composition of this waveform, but one thing is certain that Time is subtle and therefore it is a waveform and is present in everyone’s mind.

Vedanta teaches us that subtle mental waves comes first, and the subtle waveforms is the cause for the gross world around us. The subtle waveform projects the physical world out there. If you apply this reasoning, time must come first, and the time waveform is the cause for motion. So, the correct way to interpret the connection between motion and time is that when time slows down, then motion is created.

When time slows down, it is only logical to expect the objects would be closer to the Observer. The physics equation s = v*t will support this. When time t is a smaller value, the distance s will be smaller, meaning it is closer to the Observer. There is motion of the object by slowing of time. Before the slowdown of time, the objects were at a certain location and by slowing down of time, the objects have moved closer to the fixed Observer. The objects have moved, meaning there is motion. However, we feel the opposite, the objects are fixed, and the Observer has moved. This is exactly the way we feel when the other train moves in the platform. We are fixed, and the other train is moving, but we feel the other train is fixed and we are moving.

So, time controls motion and not the other way around. Time is the cause for motion. Increase or decrease the time factor in the mind, the resulting motion (or speed) of the objects will change in the physical world. Time is also the cause for the spacetime fabric expansion or contraction. Increase or decrease the time, space time fabric will also expand or contract. This corroborates the Einstein theory of special relativity.

Next time you are walking or running, just imagine you are fixed at your location, but the objects around you are moving closer to you. True and amazing.

Just a quick word about acceleration. The same logic also applies to acceleration. Acceleration is a type of motion, so here also time controls the motion. In the earlier discussion, the time slowed down by a fixed amount and this resulted in motion at a fixed speed. But in acceleration, time slows down by squaring itself, this results in motion being accelerated. So time is king, it controls both velocity and acceleration.