Expansion of the Universe

Does the universe expand? Science tells us the universe is expanding. Why is the universe expanding? How fast the universe is expanding? Science is not very sure about these questions. Using powerful telescopes, they have watched the movement of different planets and galaxies and noticed the expansion is uneven. Some places the expansion is faster and other places the expansion is slower. There is no explanation about this uneven expansion. Looking at some far away planets and looking at their rate of expansion, they have come up with a Hubble constant. The Hubble constant states that the rate of expansion is about 71 kilometers per second per megaparsec. A megaparsec is a million parsecs, or about 3.3 million light-years. It means objects 3.3 million light years away are expanding at 71 kilometers per second. This is based on observation only. If you understand the fundamentals of the universe expansion, it is possible to calculate and prove the Hubble Constant. We will be doing this in this article. 

So, what are the fundamentals of this expansion? Understanding the spacetime fabric is the key to understand this expansion. We have discussed the spacetime fabric in other arrticles. We have seen that the individual person or the observer location is the start point for the spacetime fabric. We can call this the t = 0 for the spacetime fabric. We have seen that the spacetime fabric is a time-based fabric in which different objects are placed depending upon the time light takes to reach the observer from these objects. 

What is the maximum size of the spacetime fabric?  Science tells us that the age of the universe is 13.7 billion years old. This is the big bang moment. Light reaching us from the big bang moment would be the outer edge of the spacetime fabric. Light will take 13.7 billion light years to reach us from this big bang moment. This is the outer edge because there was no universe before the big bang. So, the size of the universe: 13.7 billion light years or 12.9 x 1025 meters. One light year is the amount of distance light travels in one year, which is = 9.46 × 1015 meters

Is this spacetime fabric expanding? Definitely, yes. How much? Let us try and understand this. If you assume the universe is 13.7 billion years old ‘right now’. After one second, the age of the universe will be 13.7 billion years + 1 sec. Light must now must travel an additional 186,000 miles to reach us, which means the size of the universe has grown by 186,000 miles. After 10 seconds, the size of the universe would increase by 186,000 x 10 = 1,860,000 miles. After one year from now, the size of the universe will increase by 1 light year. 1 light year is the distance light travels in one year.

From the above, we can conclude that the rate of expansion of the Universe = 1 light year per year.

If you can imagine the spacetime fabric as an elastic rubber sheet, starting from the start point t=0 (which means you) to the edge of the universe. The end at the observer’s side is fixed it is always the t = 0; the other end which is the outer edge of the universe is being pulled outwards. This elastic space time fabric is expanding by 186,000 miles every second. It is expanding at the speed of light every second, which is one light year every year. As time flows, the expansion of the spacetime fabric will continue at the speed of light.

It must be understood that only the edge of the universe is expanding at the speed of light, anything in between will not expand at the same speed, it will be proportional to the distance from the observer. Using the rubber sheet example, if you pull the outer edge by a certain distance, the inner parts will not be stretched by the same amount. The stretching will be more at the outer edges and it will be much less as you move inwards to the other side. This means that the rate of outward expansion of galaxies, stars etc., would really depend upon how far these galaxies are far away from the observer. The observer is t=0. Stars close by will expand more slowly, as compared to stars which are further away. This is because the space time fabric for the stars nearby will stretch less as compared to the stars which are further away. 

Based on our understanding of the stretching of the space time fabric, let us try and calculate the Hubble Constant

  • The size of the universe is 13.7 billion light years and it expands by 1 light year every year
  • The object 3.3 million light years away from us, it will expand by 3.3x 106/13.7x 109 = .240 x 10-3 light year per year
  • 1 light year = 9.46 × 1012 Km
  • Therefore .240 x 10-3 light year per year = 2.27 x 109 Km per year.
  • 1 year = 3.15 x 107 sec
  • 2.27 x 109 Km per year = 71 km /sec

The above calculation shows that the Hubble constant is indeed 71 km/sec. We have just proven what has been observed by science. Since the calculation of the Hubble constant is accurate, it only shows that the expansion model explained in this section is correct and accurate. Science, please make a note and accept this expansion model for the universe.  

Functioning of the Mind

We have seen in other articles Awareness is a mix of subject, object and intelligence. Self-Awareness, has the Self and the 3 parts of Awareness.

In the mind because of Ignorance these 4 components are sitting in different departments. The Intelligence is sitting in the Buddhi, the Objects part is sitting in the Manas, the Subject part is sitting in the Sakshi and the Self or ‘I-ness’ is sitting in the Ahamkara. These four parts are separated, but there is a natural tendency for these 4 parts to combine to create Self-Awareness. There is a mutual attraction to come together so that they can achieve it original status of being Self-Awareness. When the subject, object and intelligence are separated out, the self feels incomplete, it feels inadequate and it wants to feel full and complete. The only way self can feel the completeness when the subject, object and intelligence combine into one entity.

In the mind this can happen only when the subject (in sakshi), objects (in manas) and the intelligence (in buddhi) combine to create Awareness. Only when these 3 parts combine, Awareness is generated. The Ahamkara then links with this Awareness to complete the feeling of Self-Awareness, which is the original state of fullness and non-duality which we have discussed earlier. When this is achieved the feeling of completeness and fullness (Ananda) is there but the problem is that it does not last very long. It is momentary. It lasts as long as one thought last. When the second thought pops up, the full process has to be repeated. We know we have countless thoughts every day, the same cycle is repeated with every thought. We have a momentary bliss after every thought when there is unity between buddhi, manas, sakshi and ahamkara. This bliss or Ananda will break up when the second thought pops up. This is a never ending cycle.

The Mind is complex and understanding how an experience or thought occurs in the mind is not easy. One thing, however, is clear – that the Buddhi, Manas, Sakshi and Ahamkara must combine to create an experience or thought. We will now undertake a step by step analysis on a how a typical experience is created in the mind

  • Step 1: Activity in the Manas
  • Step 2: Buddhi Knows
  • Step 3: Ahamkara Interferes
  • Step 4: Sakshi Witnesses

Step 1: Activity in the Manas

Manas is the home of the Objects and it has the Power of Known (Objects). This power is a very powerful part of the Power of Awareness, which has the ability of becoming any object you want to experience. This power has unlimited capacity, but unfortunately it is limited by the human mind. The human mind is limited what it can experience by the 5 sense organs – eyes, ears, tongue, nose and skin.

Even within these sense areas, the human mind has limitations. For example, the human ear can hear sounds up to only 20Khz of frequency. This is limited. We know other animals can manage a much wider spectrum. Our eyes can only see the ‘light part’ of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. There are species who handle other parts of the EM spectrum. In other words, there is a much bigger universe than what we can experience with our 5 senses.

If there are gross or physical sense organs, then there must also be subtle sense organs. These subtle sense organs are present in the Manas. The Manas representing the subtle body can be divided into the following abilities and powers:

  • Sense Organs – ‘Input’ organs connecting to the external Sense Objects
  • Eyes
  • Ears
  • Nose
  • Tongue
  • Skin
  • Organs of Action – ‘Output’ Organs
  • Hands
  • Feet
  • Talking
  • Reproduction
  • Evacuation
  • Antahkarana – Internal Organs: These are organs which operate at the sub-conscious level. Organs like, heart, liver, stomach, muscles etc. There is no direct control over these organs but they function at the sub-conscious level.

The sense organs are our connection to the external world. The external world of vision, sound, smell, taste and touch makes its presence known in the manas and each sense object is being connected to its respective sense organs. If you want see a tree, the subtle version of the tree will be present in the subtle version of the eye (in the manas). If you want to listen to music, the subtle version of the music will be present in the subtle version of the ear (in the manas). Whatever we experience in the external world is first present in the manas in its subtle form.

There is no denying that there is a lot of activity taking place in the Manas. All the sense organs, and the internal organs are continuously sending information into the Manas. It is indeed crowded with the different types of information. This information is in some type of wave form. Every object in the sense organs has a wave form representation. All these signals can become physical objects with the Power of Known which is available in the Manas. The problem is that the Manas does not know or understand what these input wave forms represent. This is because these wave forms are covered by Ignorance, in fact a better way to put it is that the building blocks of these object wave forms is Ignorance. Every wave form entering the sense organs in the manas is built in Ignorance. It may sound strange, but it is true that Ignorance is source of the entire subtle universe.

If Manas had the knowledge what these input waveforms represented, it could then create the required objects. At this stage the Manas does not know or understand any of the input signals. Manas has the power to become the objects, but it does not have the power to remove the ignorance from these input signals which are present in the sense and internal organs.

The Manas needs help in the removal of Ignorance.

Step 2: Buddhi Knows

The Buddhi is the intelligent part of the mind and it has the Power of Knowing. The awesome power of knowing, which is part of Awareness. It has the ability to know anything and everything in this this universe and beyond. It has that decoding power. The Power of Knowing is within Buddhi. If any object wave form comes in the presence of the Buddhi, the Buddhi would know what that object wave form represented.

The Buddhi is like the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of the human being. The input signal comes to the CPU to be processed. In the same way, the input signal from the Manas comes to the Buddhi to be processed. We saw that the input wave forms coming from the Manas are covered by ignorance, the Buddhi peels out this ignorance and reveals its actual identity. The object wave form with ignorance transforms into an object wave form with knowledge. This wave form with knowledge is a mental wave form and in Vedanta it is called a Vritti.

We can say that Buddhi is the most powerful CPU with parallel processing capability. It can handle so many different input stimuli from the five sense organs and also from the internal organs simultaneously. It removes the ignorance for each and every waveform which is present in the Manas.

It awaits further action from Ahamkara (ego) on the some of the object vrittis (not all) which have come from the 5 sense organs. In many of the routine vrittis from sense organs and all the vrittis from the internal organs, the buddhi knows what action to take. Over time, it has learned what action is to be taken, so it can undertake these actions automatically. These actions can also be described as sub-conscious, the actions which you are not aware of but which continue to happen almost automatically.

Buddhi is a self-learning CPU, which learns and knows how to handle different actions. Like the CPU it is connected to output devices, the Buddhi is also connected to output devices like the five organs of action – hand, feet, talking etc. and also all the internal organs.

Since Buddhi has many different powers and capabilities, let us discuss some of the key powers:

Power of Cognition or Sensation: This is power of knowing what is available in the sense organs. This is the power which we have described earlier of changing the object wave form of ignorance to the object wave form of knowledge.

Power of Imagination: Day dreaming or creative/positive thinking are good examples. We are involved in this on a regular basis, where we can construct an imaginary vision for ourselves. This power is present in the buddhi.

Power of Logic: Power of comparing and contrasting, drawing interferences, discussion, etc. So we can say that the power of logic is within buddhi. If you see smoke on the hill, you conclude there is fire. A wide range of logic ‘circuitry’ is available in the buddhi, which we use on a daily basis.

Power of Will: This is the power to execute desires, wishes and ideals and is available within the Buddhi and the Ahamkara. It is originally within Ahamkara, but the Buddhi also learns this skill over time.

Power of Memory: This is where all the things learned and experienced are stored. This storage is also ‘Citta’. Next time a similar vritti is presented, Memory knows what the vritti represents.


Step 3: Ahamkara Interferes

After the Buddhi processes the object wave form of ignorance from the Manas to a known mental wave form (called Vritti), this object vritti is now presented to the Ahamkara.

Ahamkara means ‘I-Maker’, it is the sense of ‘I-ness’ within you. It is not the Self in Self-Awareness, but it is a vritti and thinks it is the ‘self’. It masquerades as the Self and Ahamkara is just a mental a wave form, ‘I’ or ’self’.  If Ahamkara was the Self, it would never feel incomplete, inadequate and get only momentary doses of bliss and happiness – it would always feel complete and have continuous Ananda.

The vrittis, from the 5 senses and also the citta, the memory bank of past events, is presented to the Ahamkara. You have object vrittis coming in from your senses. The Ahamkara now has to interact with these vrittis. We saw the Buddhi could handle parallel processing by handling multiple inputs at the same time. The interaction between Ahamkara and these wide range of object vrittis happens only one at a time. You can only have one experience at a time. The Ahamkara interacts only with one vritti at a time and it gives ‘my-ness’ to the vritti .

How does Ahamkara choose between the different vrittis which are available. There are two ways this can happen

  1. Ahamkara chooses a Vritti
  2. A Vritti chooses Ahamkara

Ahamkara Chooses a Vritti: This is a willful action, where ahamkara deliberately chooses one of the object vrittis for further action. It is a noisy street, but you stop to admire a beautiful flower. Your ahamkara did not focus on all the noise, but deliberately chose the flower vritti to admire. This is a complicated process and many factors can make Ahamkara choose one of the vrittis available.

There are many instances, where Ahamkara does not choose any of the available vrittis but instructs the Buddhi to locate another particular vritti which will meet its current requirements and desires. For example, you have a desire to eat ice-cream but there is no ice cream in the house. The buddhi then instructs the manas to go to the car and drive to an ice cream shop to satisfy this desire.

A Vritti Chooses Ahamkara: It must be understood that each of the vrittis are conscious and have a life of their own. We have seen that most of these object vrittis are provided by the sense organs. These sense organs have their own likes and dislikes. Eyes want to see beautiful things, the tongue to taste delicious food, and so on. We all have had experiences where our sense organs have ‘hijacked’ the Ahamkara and ‘as though’ forced it to take a particular action against its will. The doctor has told us that any more sweets can be harmful to our health. We are fully aware of this, but still when we see a delicious sweet our hands reach out against our will and we put it in our mouths. In such instances the vritti dominates and manipulates ahamkara to undertake an action.

Vritti Modification: It is very important to understand that whenever Ahamkara interacts with an Object Vritti, it will modify the object vritti according to its likes and dislikes. In Vedanta this is called Raga and Dvesha. We have seen earlier that Ahamkara is also a mental waveform and when it interacts or superimposes with the object vritti the resultant vritti is a vritti modified by Raga and Dvesha. If you like something you will modify the vritti differently than when you dislike something.

The bottom line is that the Ahamkara modifies the incoming vritti according to its own disposition. If Ahamkara is feeling angry, it will react to the vritti differently than it would if it is feeling happy and peaceful. Ahamkara or ego adds a personal touch to the interacting object vritti. In fact, it also adds the ‘I-ness’ to the vritti. Ahamkara can become attached or addicted to certain vrittis because they give it momentary happiness and it wants to repeat these moment of happiness.

Step 4: Sakshi Witnesses

This is the last step in the process. We have seen that for Self-Awareness you need the following 4 elements.

Self-Awareness = Object + Intelligence + Self + Subject

We have seen in this step by step process that the object waveform in the Manas combines with the Intelligence in the Buddhi and the modification of this object vritti by Ahamkara or ego. To have awareness, the only missing element is the power of knower (Subject). The Subject or Sakshi provides this power of knower.

When the modified object vritti from Ahamkara combines with the Subject or Sakshi, you have something ‘magical’ – you have awareness of the experience. You have awareness of the experience because all the elements of awareness are now present. Till we reached step 4, the object viewed was as a waveform or vritti. When the last missing element of the subject came in contact with the object vritti, the waveform collapses to create the experience of gross objects around you. The Sakshi or subject is the one which witnesses this experience.


This 4 step process is how the mind functions for all experiences. Let us discuss some examples to reinforce this concept.

Example 1 – Scientist at Work: A scientist is working hard to prove a hypothesis. His current level of knowledge is far from the ultimate goal. The object vrittis of the current level of knowledge pass through the manas and buddhi. The scientist’s ahamkara interacts with this object vrittis and modifies the vrittis according to what the scientist thinks are the best way to solve the problem. When the subject or sakshi collapses this updated wave form, the scientist will find that he has gained more knowledge but the goal is not yet in sight. The scientist keeps repeating this cycle, till one day, the ahamkara modifies the object vritti to match the vritti for proving the hypothesis. When this object vritti collapses, the scientist has gained the knowledge to prove his hypothesis.


Example 2 – Sub-conscious Driving: When we are driving, many times our mind is engrossed in some thought, but when the traffic light changes to red, we automatically stop the car. We (at least I do) sometime wonder how this happens. The red light vritti from the manas is presented to the buddhi. Over the years of driving, the buddhi has learned that one stops at the red light. So even without the involvement of the ahamkara, the buddhi on its own instructs the output device (the legs) to stop the car. The buddhi is always self-learning and has the ability to manage the day to day activity at a sub-conscious level while the ego is not involved.

Example 3Ahamkara Interpretation: The Ahamkara or ego is constantly modifying the incoming object vrittis and the resultant vritti is not the same as the original vritti. The original intention is lost. This modification is done by Raga and Dvesha. Desires of the Ahamkara is usually the driving force for Raga and Dvesha. When this updated vritti collapses in the presence of the Sakshi or Subject, the resultant experience has two components – the original representation of the object plus addition of the raga and dvesha. This addition by the ego is what we call emotions. Human being have a wide range of emotions and this is always the resultant of when desire interacts with thought.


Understanding Time

In classical physics, space and time were considered completely different and independent of each other. Newton considered space to have 3 dimensions and a separate single dimension for time.  Einstein with his Theory of Relativity showed that space and time where interlinked and he changed the terminology from ‘space and time’ to ‘space time’ and this space time had 4 dimensions. But, it’s hard to understand 4 dimensions, it’s not intuitive. We can only visualize 3 dimensions, so where is the 4th dimension? Neither Einstein nor science has given a proper explanation for this.

  1. If we look at the teaching of Vedanta, this confusion between space and time becomes quite clear. Einstein showed Time and Space are one and the same thing, the only difference is that Time is subtle while Space is gross. Space and Time are referring to the same thing. Space is the gross version of Time. Space is gross; we can see Space out there. We have seen that anything subtle is an activity that happens in the mind. As we saw, mental activities are made up of waves or ‘vrittis’. Since Time is nonphysical and subtle, it must be a mental activity and it must be made up of waves or ‘vrittis’.
  2. If Time is subtle, it must be a ‘vritti’ or wave which is present in an individual mind and in the cosmic mind. This wave has the power to create Time. It is quite difficult for us to understand or visualize the composition of this waveform, but one thing is certain that Time is subtle and therefore it is a waveform and is present in everyone’s mind and it creates time.

Let us study the Time ‘vritti’ or mental wave in little more detail and see how it interacts with other waves in the mind.

  • Time and Objects
  • Time and Spacetime Fabric
  • Time and Energy
  • Time and Motion

Time and Objects:

Time is a wave in the mind and all the objects in the world are also a wave in the mind. Do they interact with each other? Of course, the time wave interacts with every object wave in the mind. When any seed body germinates and becomes a wave in the subtle body, the time wave superimposes itself on the object wave. It is the t = 0 or the birthday for the object wave. Right from the t = 0 moment, the time wave is the driving force for the object wave to modify itself, grow itself to play out the blueprint of its life. If there was no time wave, all the object waves would remain static and remain in the same state, with no growth. The time wave is the underlying force which moves this universe and object waves forward

  • The t = 0 for each object would be different. The t = 0 for the universe was 13.7 billion years ago. The t = 0 for the sun was about 4 billion years ago. In the same way every object in the universe will have its own t = 0 when it came into existence. From t = 0 to ‘now’, each of the object has gone through a history of events. From one moment to another, each of the objects modifies itself. As the time moves forward, the object waveform keeps changing, playing out the blueprint of its life cycle. It is like a small tree shoot coming out form the seed and then over time it becomes a fully-grown tree with branches and leaves and finally it decays and dies. The tree waveform plays out its blueprint as time moves forward. This life cycle applies to everything in the universe. It must be noted that the time wave does not change the object wave, it only moves it forward. The change in the object wave are due many reasons including the fulfillment of its pending karmas and interaction with other objects waves.
  • If you are looking at the sun, the sun will also be present in your mind as a ‘vritti’ or waveform. Let us try and visualize how the ‘vritti’ of the sun combines with the Time ‘vritti’. It will generate a superimposed waveform in the mind. The time factor is now added to the sun. It is like a mathematical waveform with time as a variable. If you think about it, this superimposed waveform will now provide a history of the sun. Since Time has been superimposed on the sun waveform, the new waveform will have the ‘potential’ to show the sun in all its stages of growth from its birth 4.6 billion years to right now. All the different Suns in the historical time line is present in the Vritti in its ‘potential’ form.  For example, you are on earth and you want to see the sun. Your mind will have a superimposed vritti of (Sun and Time). When this waveform collapses in the presence of the Observer, you will see an 8-min younger Sun. From all the possibilities, this 8-min younger Sun is present in the potential form in the combined Sun + Time ‘Vritti’. Let us suppose a person in a distant planet which is 1 million light years away and is looking at our sun through a telescope. He will also have the same combined waveform of the Sun and Time in his mind as we do on the earth. However, when his waveform collapses, he will see a 1 million-year-younger Sun. These two examples show that the combined Sun + Time waveform has the potential of all the historical Suns. Depending upon the Observers location in the universe, Suns of different ages will be observed.

This logic is not only applicable to the Sun but to every object in the universe, both living and nonliving. The Time vritti will combine with the waveform for every object in the universe, and this combination will contain the ‘potential’ history in time for all the objects in the universe. The Time vritti or waveform is extremely powerful, and it can create objects of different ages.

Time and Spacetime Fabric:

We have just seen the interaction between time and the objects. Let us now study the interaction of time with the spacetime fabric. Einstein in his theory of relativity mentions that there is a presence of the spacetime fabric, which is the underlying framework of the universe. I like to compare the spacetime fabric with the TV monitor screen on which the image is displayed.

We are so used to seeing space and thinking about space in terms of distances. How far the tree is in the backyard or how high the plane is flying in the sky. This method does not give a full understanding of the spacetime fabric. A more innovative way to look at the spacetime fabric is in terms of time. The tree in the backyard is microseconds away, the plane flying in the sky is milliseconds away, the moon is 3 seconds away, the sun is 8 minutes away, the distant star is 1 million light years away. The edge of the universe is 13.7 billion light years away. We are talking about the time light takes to reach us from different objects. In the same way all the objects in the universe can be place appropriately on the spacetime framework.

We know all the objects out there in the physical world are memory objects. The sun is an 8-minute younger sun, the tree in the backyard is microsecond younger etc. These objects in the physical world are placed appropriately on the spacetime fabric. The placement would depend upon the time for light to travel from the object to us.

Let us explore this further. Suppose we are looking outside and we see a tree in the backyard, plane flying at 30,000 feet, the moon, the sun and distant star 1 million light years away. There is nothing else in our view, just these 5 objects. Let us try and understand what is happening in our mind. There is a tree ‘vritti’ in our mind, this waveform mixes up with the time wave form. This superimposed wave form has the potential to show up all the tree forms from its birth at t=0 to now. Since the tree is only microsecond away from us, from all the possibilities, the tree wave will show only the microsecond younger tree (as compared to the ‘now’ tree). In the same way, the vritti of the plane is also available in the mind. Here again all the possibilities of the plane are available from its birth at t = 0 to now. Since the plane is flying at 30,000 feet, the vritti or the waveform in the mind will show only the millisecond younger plane (as compared to the ‘now’ version of the plane). From all the possibilities, the moon wave in the mind will show the 3 second younger moon. The sun wave in the mind will show an 8min younger sun and the planet will show a 1 million younger planet. Ultimately there is a single wave form in the mind. Therefore, the millisecond younger wave of the tree + microsecond younger wave of the plane + the wave of the 3 second younger moon + wave of the 8-min younger sun + wave of the I million younger planet, all these waves will from one complex wave in the mind. This complex waveform will then collapse in the presence of the observer and the tree is placed microsecond away, the plane will be placed at millisecond away, the moon 3 seconds away, the sun 8 minutes and the planet is placed 1 million light years away on the spacetime fabric.

The scene we described above was a simple one with only few objects, but what we really see outside is thousands of objects at different distances from us. It is a complex array of memory objects and each placed object is aged differently. The memory objects which are as close to a ‘now’ objects will be placed near to us, while objects which are placed further away, will be the younger version of that object. When you view the scene out there in terms of distances, it does not seem that complicated. However, if you look at the same scene in terms of time, the scene becomes very complex. Different age version of the different objects is placed on this spacetime fabric. The right age version for the object will be chosen depending how far the object is from us. It maybe a good idea to start looking at scenes out there in terms of time, if you do that, you will be able to appreciate the real structure of the universe.

  • We have discussed earlier that the t = 0 for the ‘now’ universe is within us. This t = 0 is also the t = 0 for the spacetime fabric. It is important to note that the spacetime fabric starts from within us. This indicates that the physical world is projected by the individual mind, based on the object waves in the mind. This is so contrary to what we have been taught by science about the perception process.
  • Every projection of the complex object wave is like a single frame. We know from science taught in school that you need at least 24 frames per seconds for the image to look continuous. What we see outside is continuous movement of objects. From this we can estimate that the mind projects at least 24 frames per second. The image processing which takes place every frame is repeated at least 24 times every second. Can you imagine the processing power of the mind?

Just to avoid confusion, it is important to understand that the t = 0 for the object and t = 0 for the start of the spacetime fabric are different. The t = 0 for the object starts at its birthday, while the t = 0 for the spacetime fabric is within us.

Time and Energy:

Just like Time is subtle, and Space is gross, the same logic can be used for Energy and Mass. The famous Einstein equation E = mc2 is self-explanatory. Energy is subtle, and Mass is gross, they are both interlinked. Mass is the gross version of Energy. Just like Time is a vritti, in the same way Energy also is a vritti and is present as a waveform in an individual mind and in the cosmic mind. This Energy vritti when it superimposes with any object vritti, will provide the required potential energy to the object and when this object becomes gross, it will have the required mass representing that energy.

If you examine it closely, you’ll find that the Schrodinger Wave Equation applicable to any object has two variables – time and energy. We have just seen that any Vritti or waveform of any object in the mind also has two variables –time and energy. Once again proving that the quantum physics waves are nothing but the mental waves in the mind.

Einstein’s theory of relativity interlinks time and energy. This theory states that in the presence of energy, time curves or bends and time slows down. When you place any mass in a stretched-out rubber sheet, the rubber sheet curves around the mass of the object. In the same way if you place a mass on the spacetime fabric, the spacetime fabric bends and curves around the mass. This bending of the spacetime fabric slows down time.

We saw earlier that the time wave superimposes on the object wave, in the same way the energy wave also superimposes on this Time-Object Wave resulting in a combined Energy Time Object Wave. This combined wave then collapses in the presence of the observer, the resulting mass is placed on the spacetime fabric. The fabric will curve at this location and the time will slow down around this curve. The slowdown will depend on the mass of the object. Higher the mass, higher the curvature, slower the time.

Time and Motion: 

We see so much motion in the universe. Within planet earth, we see people walking, we see cars, trains planes moving around. If you look at our solar system, all the planets including Earth is moving around the sun. Then the sun and other stars are moving around the center of the milky way galaxy. The milky way galaxy is moving as compared to the other galaxies in the universe.

How is this motion generated?

We have seen Time is a mental wave in the mind. We have also seen that all the objects are also mental waves or vrittis in the mind. The Time wave superimposes with the object wave to create a combined Time/Object wave. If all the objects are stationery relative to each other, the time wave in each object will function on the same scale.  The time wave in each object will be identical. When the time scale is identical in each object there is no motion relative to each other.

Now suppose there are two objects A and object B. You now want to generate motion for object B as compared to object A. These are object waves in the mind, it is not possible to move these waves in the mind to generate motion. This is just not possible. So, what is the solution? The solution is to slow down the time wave in object B as compared to object A. This slowing down of the time wave in object B will give a sense of motion to object B as compared to object A. If object A and object B both have a clock in them. To generate motion, just slow down the clock in object B, and you will get a sense of motion of object B as compared to object A.

Physics teaches us S = V * t, where is S = distance, V = velocity and t = time.

When there is relative motion between two objects, the distance traveled between the two objects is the same. Object B moves S distance as compared to object A due to motion. Even though object A is stationery, it has also moved S distance as compared to object B. The relative distance between object A and object B will always remain the same. If you measure the distance from object A to object B or from object B to object A, it will always be the same. If the distance S is always constant between these two objects. In our example the time wave for object B has slowed down. To cover the same distance, the velocity of object B must increase as compared to object A. If time goes down, velocity must go up to cover the same S distance.

There is no separate motion wave in the mind, the time wave controls the sense of motion. The Einstein theory of special relatively completely supports this. If you study this theory, you will understand that, where ever there is motion, time slows down. Faster the motion, slower the time clock. If you achieve the speed of light, time will completely stop. It must be pointed out that this theory gives the impression that there is motion, therefore time slows down. This is incorrect. There is no motion wave in the mind. Time slows in the combined time/object waveform and this slowing down creates a sense of motion of the object. Time creates motion. Next time you see a car going past, you can think that the motion of the car has been created by the slowing of the time in the time/car waveform in your mind. When this slowed down time/car waveform comes in the presence of the Observer, it collapses, and you see car in motion in the physical world.  

The Time wave is King!